The contributors of these 16 articles focus first on the identification and regulation of germline stem cells in model organisms
, describing the development of germline stem cells in Drosophilia, analyzing the C.
Following two reviews summarizing experimental strategies commonly used to manipulate endocytic and exocytic pathways, 26 contributions describe cell-free assays of exo- and endocytosis, biochemical protocols for analyzing vesicle trafficking, assays of exocytosis and endocytosis in cultured cells, and examples of endocytosis and exocytosis analysis in model organisms
In addition, the development of genomic approaches to systematically assess how each gene influences the phenotypic response of cells to environmental agents is well under way for model organisms
such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and such "genomic phenotyping" is now being initiated for mammalian cells.
The papers in between discuss the relationship of other tropisms to gravitropism, auxin transport, single-cell systems as model organisms
, light perception, moisture gradients, and touch sensing mechanisms.
elegans, fruit flies, and other model organisms
to dissect genetics and molecular aging.
It shouldn't be vital to use animals when scientists today have already been able to advance their knowledge about human health by testing on model organisms
. Sometimes it is pointless to use animals for testing drugs which could be of benefit to humans, one because these drugs could be bad for the animal body and two, because it isn't necessary they have the same impact on human beings.
Scientists can acquire better data in shorter times with 2-D or 3-D cell cultures, tissue sections or small model organisms
. The microscope can be adapted to a range of tasks and applications.
Funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), part of NIH, the ENCODE Project is generating a catalog of all the genes and regulatory elements--the parts of the genome that control whether genes are active or not--in humans and select model organisms
. With four years of additional support, NHGRI is building on a longstanding commitment to developing freely available genomics resources available for use by the scientific community.
Then, the researchers mimicked these mechanisms in somatic tissues of model organisms
to extend lifespan and delay age-related diseases.