MoAb

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MoAb

Abbreviation for monoclonal antibody.

monoclonal antibody

Diagnostics
Mabs are used in diagnostics by radioactively labelling them to target malignant cells, detect metastases and screen body fluids for microorganisms, or measure levels of circulating hormones.

Fringe oncology
Alternative healthcare providers may include therapeutic Mabs as a part of treatment.

Immunology
A highly specific antibody formed by a clone of B lymphocytes, either naturally (e.g., in cold haemagglutinin) or produced synthetically by fusing an immortal cell (mouse myeloma) to a cell producing an antibody against a desired antigen.

Oncology
Mabs are increasingly used in cancer management as they directly inhibit the growth of certain tumours, can be chemically bound to toxins that are lethal to malignant cells, stimulate the complement system in destroying malignant cells, can be used to purge the BM of malignant cells, and form the basis for vaccines and drug delivery systems.
 
Adverse effects
Allergic reactions, fevers, chills, hypotension, liver and kidney problems.
 
Pathology
Mabs are used in pathology to differentiate tumour subtypes with batteries of Mabs raised against intermediate filaments or membrane antigens.

antibody

(ant'i-bod?e) [ anti- + body],

Ab

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ANTIBODY: Structure of one igG molecule
A substance produced by B lymphocytes in response to a unique antigen. Each Ab molecule combines with a specific antigen to destroy or control it. All antibodies, except natural antibodies (antibodies to different blood types), are made by B cells stimulated by a foreign antigen, typically a foreign protein, polysaccharide, or nucleic acid. Synonym: immunoglobulin See: illustration; antigen; autoantibody; cytokine; isoantibody

Antibodies neutralize or destroy antigens in several ways. They can initiate lysis of the antigen by activating the complement system; neutralize toxins released by bacteria, coating (opsonizing) the antigen or forming a complex to stimulate phagocytosis; promote antigen clumping (agglutination); or prevent the antigen from adhering to host cells.

An antibody molecule consists of four polypeptide chains (two light and two heavy), which are joined by disulfide bonds. The heavy chains form the complement-binding site, and the light and heavy chains form the site that binds the antigen.

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ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

acetylcholine receptor binding antibody

Abbreviation: AChR-Ab
An autoantibody against acetylcholine receptors in the neuromuscular junction. Binding, blocking, or modulating antibodies against this receptor are found in the blood of most patients with generalized myasthenia gravis and in about half of all patients with ocular forms of the disease.
illustration

agonistic antibody

An antibody that stimulates or activates an organ. E.g., agonistic antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor in Grave disease stimulate the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones that produce hyperthyroidism.

anticardiolipin antibody

Abbreviation: aCLa
An autoantibody against the cell membrane lipid, diphosphatidyl glycerol. It produces abnormal and sometimes life-threatening blood clotting. The antibody is found in a variety of autoimmune and infectious diseases, including in patients with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and syphilis.

anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody

Abbreviation: anti-CCP
An antibody found in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis but not in those with other joint or soft tissue diseases.

anti–DNase B antibody

An antibody formed during infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. It is used, retrospectively, to help diagnose recent streptococcal infections.

antiendomysial antibody

An antibody that cross-reacts with smooth muscle collagen and the gluten in wheat, found in the serum of people with celiac sprue and some related autoimmune diseases.

antiendothelial cell antibody

An autoantibody present in the serum of patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma (systemic sclerosis), systemic lupus erythematosus, interstitial lung diseases, and sarcoidosis. They attach to antigens on the cells that line blood vessels and injure those cells, producing blood vessel injury and inflammation (vasculitis).

antifibrillarin antibody

An autoantibody to the nucleolar protein fibrillarin, found in patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), esp. those with relatively severe disease. It is identified more often in men than in women with the disease and in people of African descent as opposed to Europeans or Asians.

antiganglioside antibody

An antibody formed against the chemical components of nerves, found in the serum of those with Guillain-Barré syndrome.

antigliadin antibody

An antibody formed against the gluten in wheat, found in the serum of people with celiac sprue.

antileukocyte antibody

Any antibody found in plasma that, when donated and infused into a recipient, damages the recipient's white blood cells. Leukocyte injury after plasma exchange or infusion is the event that triggers transfusion-related acute lung injury.

anti-Hu antibody

An autoantibody associated with paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. It is also known as ANNA-1 (antineuronal nuclear antibody-1).

antimicrosomal antibody

An autoantibody found in the plasma of patients with thyroid injury, e.g., in several forms of thyroiditis and other rheumatologic or autoimmune diseases.

anti-myeloperoxidase antibody

An antibody found in patients with several autoimmune vasculitides, such as microscopic polyangitis.
Synonym: perinuclear anti–neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

antineuronal nuclear antibody

Abbreviation: ANNA
Any of several antibodies that bind to neuronal targets in the cerebrum and cerebellum, producing paraneoplastic neurological dysfunction. The antibodies are typically released by cancers such as small-cell carcinoma of the lung (also known as ANNA-1 and ANNA-2), testicular cancer (anti-Ta antibody), or breast cancer (ANNA-2).

antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

Abbreviation: ANCA
An autoantibody found in the blood of patients with certain forms of vasculitis (such as Churg-Strauss syndrome, microscopic polyangiitis, Wegener granulomatosis) esp. when it affects small blood vessels.

antinuclear antibody

Abbreviation: ANA
Any of a group of autoantibodies that react against normal components of the cell nucleus. These antibodies are present in a variety of immunologic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, Sjögren syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis, and in some patients taking hydralazine, procainamide, or isoniazid. In addition, ANA is present in some normal people. Tests for ANAs are used in the diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases.

antiphospholipid antibody

Abbreviation: aPLa
Any of a group of immunoglobulin autoantibodies that react with phospholipids, which are one of the primary components of the cell membrane (the other components are glycolipids and steroids). These antibodies are found in patients with a variety of connective tissue and infectious disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, syphilis, and malaria. They cause abnormal blood clotting, thrombocytopenia; and in women of childbearing age, repeated miscarriages. The anticardiolipin antibodies are one type of antiphospholipid antibody.

anti–proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody

Abbreviation: anti-PCNA
An antibody found in the blood of patients with diseases in which cells replicate rapidly. Such conditions include autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and malignancies.

antiproteinase-3 antibody

An autoantibody found in patients with small blood vessel vasculitides, such as Wegener granulomatosis.
Synonym: diffusely cytoplasmic anti–neutrophil antibody

antireceptor antibody

An antibody that reacts with the antigen receptor on a cell rather than with an antigen itself.

antiribosomal P antibody

An autoantibody found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, esp. those with neurological or psychiatric manifestations of the disorder.

anti-scl-70 antibody

Anti-topoisomerase I antibody.

antithyroperoxidase antibody

Abbreviation: TPOAb
A serum marker of autoimmune thyroid destruction, i.e., of Grave disease or Hashimotothyroiditis.

antititin antibody

An antibody that reacts with striated muscle cells. It is found principally in people with myasthenia gravis who also have thymoma.

anti-topoisomerase I antibody

An autoantibody found in the serum of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, silicosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Higher levels of the antibody correlate with worsening kidney, lung, and skin disease.
Synonym: anti-scl-70 antibody

blocking antibody

An antibody that prevents an antigen from binding with a cellular receptor.

catalytic antibody

Abzyme.

cross-reacting antibody

An antibody that reacts with antigens other than its specific antigen because they contain binding sites that are structurally similar to its specific antigen.
See: antigenic determinant

cytotoxic antibody

An antibody that lyses cells by binding to a cellular antigen and activating complement or killer cells.

diffusely cytoplasmic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

Abbreviation: C-ANCA.
Antiproteinase-3 antibody.

direct fluorescein-conjugated antibody

Abbreviation: DFA
Direct fluorescent antibody.

direct fluorescent antibody

Abbreviation: DFA
A fluorescent antibody test performed on sputum to detect microorganisms that invade the respiratory tract, e.g., Legionella, Mycoplasma, or Bacillus anthracis.
Synonym: direct fluorescein-conjugated antibody; direct immunofluorescence test

Donath-Landsteiner antibody

See: Donath-Landsteiner antibody

fluorescent antibody

Abbreviation: FA
An antibody that has been stained or marked by a fluorescent material. The fluorescent antibody technique permits rapid diagnosis of various infections.

glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody

Abbreviation: GADA
An antibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase. It is a serum marker of type 1 diabetes mellitus and is found in the blood of patients with stiff-person syndrome.

immune antibody

An antibody produced by immunization or as a result of transfusion of incompatible blood.

maternal antibody

An antibody produced by the mother and transferred to the fetus in utero or during breastfeeding.

monoclonal antibody

Abbreviation: MoAB
A type of antibody, specific to a certain antigen, created in the laboratory from hybridoma cells. Because monoclonal antibodies are derived from a single cell line and raised against a single antigen, they are highly specific. Diagnostically, they are used to identify microorganisms, white blood cells, hormones, and tumor antigens. In patient care, they are used to treat transplant rejection, certain cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

Hybridoma cells, used to produce monoclonal antibodies, are formed by the fusion of a spleen cell from a mouse immunized with an antigen and a multiple myeloma cell (a cancerous plasma B cell). The fused cells are screened to identify those that secrete antibodies against a specific antigen. A continuous supply of these antigen-specific monoclonal antibody secreting cells can then be grown in cultures.

See: antibody; B cell; hybridoma

natural antibody

An antibody present in a person without known exposure to the specific antigen, such as an anti-A antibody in a person with B blood type.

panel reactive antibody

Abbreviation: PRA
A measure of an organ transplant recipient's level of sensitization to antigens on donated organs. It is the percentage of cells taken from a broad selection of blood donors against whose antigens the organ recipient's serum reacts. The higher the panel reactive antibody, the more challenging it is to match a donor organ to the recipient.

perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

Antimyeloperoxidase antibody.

p504s antibody

Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase.

polyclonal antibody

An antibody that reacts with many different antigens.

protective antibody

An antibody produced in response to an infectious disease. See: immunity

radionuclide-linked monoclonal antibody

A monoclonal antibody to which a radioisotope has been attached. The antibody attaches to receptors on the surface of undesired cells (e.g., cancer cells) and delivers a dose of radiation directly to those cells, leaving healthy cells and tissues relatively unaffected.

sensitizing antibody

Reagin.

toxin-linked monoclonal antibody

A monoclonal antibody to which a cell-killing drug has been attached. The antibody combines preferentially with receptors on undesired cells (such as cancer cells) and delivers its lethal drug to those cells but not to healthy cells and tissues. To increase their effectiveness and decrease immune responses to these cells, genes for antigen binding sites from human antibodies are added, creating humanized monoclonal antibodies.

warm antibody

Warm autoagglutinin.illustration

monoclonal antibody

Abbreviation: MoAB
A type of antibody, specific to a certain antigen, created in the laboratory from hybridoma cells. Because monoclonal antibodies are derived from a single cell line and raised against a single antigen, they are highly specific. Diagnostically, they are used to identify microorganisms, white blood cells, hormones, and tumor antigens. In patient care, they are used to treat transplant rejection, certain cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

Hybridoma cells, used to produce monoclonal antibodies, are formed by the fusion of a spleen cell from a mouse immunized with an antigen and a multiple myeloma cell (a cancerous plasma B cell). The fused cells are screened to identify those that secrete antibodies against a specific antigen. A continuous supply of these antigen-specific monoclonal antibody secreting cells can then be grown in cultures.

See: antibody; B cell; hybridoma
See also: antibody
References in periodicals archive ?
After the death of King Alfonso [VI, in 1109], [...] King Ali, who was the most powerful among the Saracens, and who as king of Marrakesh ruled over the Moabites, and on this side of the sea over the Hagarenes far and wide, and over many islands and peoples of the sea, like a serpent thirsting in the summer heat, raised his head and, as if he would triumph everywhere after the death of such a great man, summoned all the princes, commanders and soldiers of the Moabites together with a great army of Arab mercenaries, and many thousands of horsemen, crossbowmen and great companies of foot-soldiers, as numerous as the sand which is upon the sea shore.
The name of Ruth does not appear in any other biblical book that mentions King David's ancestry, but David surely had Moabite connections.
Jephthah responded by explaining that the Israelites had never fought with the Moabites directly over that territory; they had conquered it from Sihon.
The Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, and Amalekites who lived south and east of ancient Palestine -- the Promised Land in the Hebrew Bible -- mistreated, cursed, attacked and refused safe passage to the Israelites who trekked to Palestine.
Does her bitterness include anything and anyone Moabite (she had lost her husband and sons in Moab)?
This esteemed figure allegedly bestowed upon Ali the power to preach "the old time gospel of Islam" to one of the lost tribe of Moabites, namely, the negroes in America.
There they settled and their sons married Moabite women, Orpah and Ruth.
And they rose early in the morning, And went forth into the wilderness of Tekoa; And as they went forth, Jehoshaphat stood and said: 'Hear me, O Judah, and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem: Believe in the Lord your G-d, so shall ye be established; Believe His prophets, so shall ye prosper.' (II Chronicles 20, 20) The Moabites were destroyed, the story continues, apparently through internal warfare before they arrived to battle the Jews.
He is sure that this narrative expresses the tension in the Deuteronomic prohibition of intermarriage with the Ammonites and Moabites. He finds not only conceptual allusions but verbal usage that urges his conclusion.
The Midianites' brand of diplomacy was less about handshakes than a kind of spiritual warfare that involved acquiring the Israelite-cursing services of a donkey-riding prophet (though they seem to have been mostly going along with the Moabites on this one) and having their women seduce Israelite men.
8) The Gibeonites, Amorites and Moabites met the same fate as previous peoples and cities did too.
Among the items on display Wednesday were a statue of the bull-faced Moabite god Hadad and nearly 300 vessels, lamps and altars for performing religious rituals, Saad said, adding that the objects indicate the Moabites worshipped many deities and had a highly organized ritual use of temples.