Glucocorticoid-induced transcript 1 gene deficiency impaired the effects of glucocorticoids on glucocorticoid receptor and mitogen-activated protein
Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein
kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase decreases UVB-induced activator protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in a SKH-1 hairless mouse model.
Non-Smad signaling pathways have also been implicated with TGF-[beta] signaling, but the exact mechanisms are not yet clear.12-13 The Mitogen-Activated Protein
Kinase (MAPK) could conduct transmission of intracellular and extracellular signals, and could be stimulated by many components of the microenvironment.
Li, "Mitogenactivated protein kinase phosphatase-1: a critical phosphatase manipulating mitogen-activated protein
kinase signaling in cardiovascular disease (review)," International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol.
Thus, the adaptor protein, named MyD88, activated in turn by the heterodimeric complex, activate downstream the following: (1) IARK-1, IARK-4, and mitogen-activated protein
kinase (MAPK) kinases, through the TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) signalling, which in turn activates activator protein 1 (AP-1) through c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs).
Davis, "MKK3- and MKK6-regulated gene expression is mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein
kinase signal transduction pathway," Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.
Sugden, "Depletion of mitogen-activated protein
kinase using an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide approach downregulates the phenylephrine-induced hypertrophic response in rat cardiac myocytes," Circulation Research, vol.
Holbrook, "The cellular response to oxidative stress: influences of mitogen-activated protein
kinase signalling pathways on cell survival," Biochemical Journal, vol.
Abbreviations BCA: Butyleyanoacrylate DCFH-DA: Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide DOX: Doxorubicin DZR: Dexrazoxane FBS: Fetal bovine serum HLE: Human lens epithelial MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein
kinase MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide PVDF: Polyvinylidene fluoride PI: Propidium iodide ROS: Reactive oxygen species RUT: Rutinum SDS-PAGE: SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis TAK1: Transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 TGF-[beta]1: Transforming growth factor-[beta]1 THP: Pirarubicin p-p38: Phosphorylated p38 VSMCs: Vascular smooth muscle cells.
Chavey et al., "The relationship between p38 mitogen-activated protein
kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase during myocardial ischemia," Cardiovascular Research, vol.
Marber, "The case for inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein
kinase in heart failure," Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol.
During the processing of the data on genes correlating with changes in RIL expression, we identified components of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein
kinase) signaling pathways being key regulators of carcinogenesis.