mitochondrion

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mitochondrion

 [mi″to-kon´dre-ah] (pl. mitochon´dria) (Gr.)
a small, spherical to rod-shaped, membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelle, the principal sites of ATP synthesis; mitochondria also contain enzymes of the citric acid cycle and ones for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and other biochemical pathways. They also contain DNA, RNA, and ribosomes; they replicate independently and synthesize some of their own proteins. adj., adj mitochon´drial.
Mitochondrion. This organelle has a double membrane that unfolds and forms cristae. The membrane and cristae serve as attachment sites for oxidative enzymes. From Damjanov, 2000.

mi·to·chon·dri·on

, pl.

mi·to·chon·dri·a

(mī'tō-kon'drē-on, mī'to-kon'drē-ă),
An organelle of the cell cytoplasm consisting of two sets of membranes, a smooth continuous outer coat and an inner membrane arranged in tubules or more often in folds that form platelike double membranes called cristae; mitochondria are the principal energy source of the cell and contain the cytochrome enzymes of terminal electron transport and the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation.
Synonym(s): Altmann granule (2)
[G. mitos, thread, + chondros, granule, grits]

mitochondrion

(mī′tə-kŏn′drē-ən)
n. pl. mitochon·dria (-drē-ə)
A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism, including those responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy.

mi′to·chon′dri·al (-drē-əl) adj.

mi·to·chon·dri·on

, pl. mitochondria (mī'tō-kon'drē-ŏn, -ă)
An organelle of the cell cytoplasm consisting of two sets of membranes, a smooth continuous outer coat and an inner membrane arranged in tubules or moreoften in folds that form platelike double membranes called cristae; mitochondria are the principal energy source of the cell and contain the cytochrome enzymes of terminal electron transport and the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation.
[G. mitos, thread, + chondros, granule, grits]

mitochondrion

(pl. mitochondria) a subcellular, cylindrical organelle found in EUKARYOTES, of about 0.2–0.5 μm in length. Under the ELECTRON MICROSCOPE, the mitochondrion is seen to consist of a double membrane surrounding a matrix, with the inner membrane folded into projections called CRISTAE. The walls of the cristae are the site of ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS producing ATP, while the reactions of the KREBS CYCLE take place within the matrix. Mitochondria have thus been named the ‘powerhouses’ of the cell and are especially prevalent in cells with a high energy requirement. Mitochondria are selfreplicating and contain DNA by which they can control the synthesis of some of their own proteins.

Altmann,

Richard, German histologist, 1852-1900.
Altmann anilin-acid fuchsin stain - a mixture of picric acid, anilin, and acid fuchsin which stains mitochondria crimson against a yellow background.
Altmann fixative - a bichromate-osmic acid fixative.
Altmann-Gersh method - the method of rapidly freezing a tissue and dehydrating it in a vacuum.
Altmann granule - a granule that has an affinity for fuchsin. Synonym(s): fuchsinophil granule; mitochondrion
Altmann theory - a theory that protoplasm consists of granular particles that are clustered and enclosed in indifferent matter.

mitochondrion

An organelle in the cytoplasm of cells, which produces most of the energy-rich molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cells. It is produced by using oxygen to break down nutrient molecules (e.g. glucose). The number of mitochondria in a cell varies, it is greater in active cells, such as muscle and liver cells which need more ATP. Mitochondria are involved in other processes (e.g. apoptosis, cellular proliferation). Each mitochondrion contains DNA, RNA, ribosomes and granules. The DNA is distinct from that of the cell nucleus. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only through the female. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA causes genetic disorders (e.g. Leber's hereditary optic atrophy). Plural: mitochondria.
References in periodicals archive ?
The synthesis of mitochondrial proteins, mainly those that are part of the COX and ATP synthase complexes, were significantly affected by the dissolved oxygen concentration of seawater (Martinez-Cruz et al.
Chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein acetylation and oxidative stress in the kidney.
Mitochondrial proteins are mostly encoded by plant nuclear genome, while the mitochondrial genome encodes a few components of the ETC (electron transport chain) (Cooper, 2000).
As previously mentioned, SIRT3 modulates multitude of mitochondrial proteins potentially, and dysfunction of SIRT3 contributes to reprogram metabolism in tumor cells.
Overexpression of the protective mitochondrial proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-[x.sub.L] did not confer resistance to parvifloron D-induced cytotoxicity.
A mitochondrial protein compendium elucidates complex I disease biology.
As discussed above, cross-talk between the nucleus and mitochondria occurs partly via epigenetic pathways with many potential mitochondrial/epigenetic interactions, such as nDNA methylation effects on transcription of mRNA for mitochondrial proteins or the effects of mtDNA depletion on altered nDNA methylation.
This mutation leads to impaired synthesis of multiple mitochondrial proteins and overall mitochondrial dysfunction.
PINK1 actually binds to depolarized mitochondria, which recruits parkin to ubiquitinylated mitochondrial proteins [30].
In addition, AMPK promotes mitochondrial biogenesis by The increase of both PGC-1[alpha] levels and other associated mitochondrial proteins [17-20].
And nuclear respiratory factors 1 (NRF1) may promote the expression of most nuclear-encoding mitochondrial proteins, as well as mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) that may directly stimulate mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription.
Pfanner, "Importing mitochondrial proteins: machineries and mechanisms," Cell, vol.

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