DNA interaction, cytotoxicity, apoptotic activity, cell cycle arrest, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane
potential assay induced by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes.
[H.sub.2]S regulated the cell cycle, decreased apoptotic cells, and preserved mitochondrial membrane
potential [[psi].sub.m] that is essential for ATP production and homeostasis.
In addition to the lipids present in the plasma membrane, some cellular organelles such as lysosomes  and mitochondrial membranes
also represent important peroxidation targets .
Caption: Figure 3: The effects of the different GBCAs and gadolinium chloride-induced reactive oxidative species and mitochondrial membrane
potential in cultured RAW 264.7.
It is well known that PINK1/Parkin signaling is the classical mediator of mitophagy; however, emerging review suggested that the colocalization of PINK1 and Mfn-2 at the outer mitochondrial membrane
provided an opportunity for PINK1 to phosphorylate Mfn-2, which is necessary for mitophagic Parkin binding to mitochondria .
These proteins leak into the cytoplasm when an apoptotic signal permeabilizes the mitochondrial membrane
. Subsequently, released cytochrome c binds apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) in the presence of ATP, thereby inducing apoptosis by activating caspases 9 and 3, initiator and apoptotic caspases, respectively.
The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 leads to the disruption of mitochondrial membranes
and release of cytochrome c [27, 28].
Vitrification at the pre-antral stage transiently alters inner mitochondrial membrane
potential but proteome of in vitro grown and matured mouse oocytes appears unaffected.
A major contributor to mitochondrial dysfunction is the opening of a hole in mitochondrial membranes
that results in swelling and eventual death of individual mitochondria.
Caption: Figure 3: The results of mitochondrial membrane
TSPO is found in the outer mitochondrial membrane
of almost every tissue in the body .
This anti-inflammatory effect was detected by the stabilization of mitochondrial membrane
potential, apoptosis rate, apoptosis relative proteins, intracellular ROS rate, and imaging cells in an electron microscope.