electron transport chain

(redirected from Mitochondrial electron transport chain)

e·lec·tron trans·port chain

(ĕ-lek'tron trans'pōrt chān)
The final common pathway in aerobic (oxidative) metabolism. Oxygen is a cofactor.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

electron transport chain

The stage of cellular respiration in which the most adenosine triphosphate is generated. In this biochemical reaction, electrons are passed along the cytochromes of a cell or mitochondrial membrane and are ultimately accepted by oxygen, producing water. Hydrogen ions (protons) are transported across the membrane. The source of the protons and electrons is primarily nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which is recycled during the reaction.
Synonym: cytochrome transport system
See also: chain
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
Electrons are derived through the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), and a proton gradient is established across the inner mitochondrial membrane as an energy source for ATP synthesis.
Coenzyme Q10 is vital for electron transport along the mitochondrial electron transport chain. It also affects the expression of genes associated with cell signaling and metabolism.
Thus, some particular polyphenols are now recognized as molecules capable of modulate pathways that define mitochondrial biogenesis (i.e., inducing sirtuins), mitochondrial membrane potential (i.e., mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and uncoupling effects), mitochondrial electron transport chain and ATP synthesis (i.e., modulating complex I to V activity), intramitochondrial oxidative status (i.e., inhibiting/inducing ROS formation/removal enzymes), and ultimately mitochondrial-triggered cell death (modulating intrinsic apoptosis) (review in [102]).
The fact that the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in the substantia nigra of PD patients was decreased compared with age-matched controls, further supported the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD [36].
O2 acts as the terminal electron acceptor in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Due to changes in O2 environment or inhibition of the ETC, there can be an increase or decrease in ROS production.
The function of mtGPDH has largely been discussed in mammals and invertebrates such as the fruit fly Drosophda melanogaster; the enzyme may act as part of the mitochondrial electron transport chain by transferring electrons to ubiquinone and acting as an uncoupling mechanism susceptible to proton leak (Miwa et al.
Generation of reactive oxygen species by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. J Neurochem.
The main sources of ROS are the mitochondrial electron transport chain and enzymatic reactions catalyzed by NOS, NADPH oxidases, xanthine oxidase, and hemeperoxidase enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase.
Suppression of mitochondrial electron transport chain function is widespread in cancer, and this is closely connected to apoptosis resistance [50-54].
Long et al., "Reduced expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins from hibernating hearts relative to ischemic preconditioned hearts in the second window of protection," Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol.
* Mitochondrial aging can be slowed, and their energy production restored, by administration of nutrients that smooth the flow of energy down the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

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