Complex III in both HBC and HCC was confirmed to be fully functional as an addition of antimycin A inhibited the electron flow from complex III to mitochondrial complex IV
(COX) (Table 1).
Precisely, 11 mitochondrial proteins were severely affected after diabetic modeling, including mitochondrial complex III cytochrome C reductase 2, aconitase, mitochondrial complex I NADH-coenzyme Q reductase 5, mitochondrial complex IV
cytochrome C oxidase subunit 2, mitochondrial complex III cytochrome C reductase 1, mitochondrial complex II succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A, mitochondrial complex IV
cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1, glutathione peroxidase, uncoupling protein 2, peroxidase, and manganese superoxide dismutase.
Barrientos, "A CMC1-knockout reveals translation-independent control of human mitochondrial complex IV biogenesis," EMBO Reports, vol.
Van Remmen, "Ablation of the mitochondrial complex IV assembly protein Surf1 leads to increased expression of the UPR(MT) and increased resistance to oxidative stress in primary cultures of fibroblasts," Redox Biology, vol.
Mitochondrial complex IV antibody, Annexin V-FITC/PI Apoptosis Detection Kit, and WST-1 Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assay Kit were bought from Beyotime Biotechnology (Shanghai, China).
Furthermore, TSG also stimulated the protein expression of mitochondrial complex IV in a dose-dependent way (Figure 4(e)).
Relevant to the COC-induced chemistry, the mitochondrial function appears affected both directly, particularly at the level of complex I , and indirectly, due to production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), both strongly affecting mitochondrial complex IV
and permeability and fluidity of the membranes.
Thus, allosteric ATP inhibition of mitochondrial complex IV
is prevented by reversible PKA-mediated phosphorylation of serine 58 of complex IV subunit IV-1.
Mitochondrial complex IV enzyme activity was measured to indicate mitochondrial function.
We further investigate mitochondrial functional indexes including mitochondrial complex IV enzyme activity and ATP production.
It should be kept in mind, however, that, even in the absence of [ONOO.sup.-], depending on the electron flux level through the respiratory chain, that is, on the concentration of mitochondrial ferrocytochrome c, and particularly under low [O.sub.2] tension (hypoxia), inhibition of mitochondrial complex IV by NO can be severe and persistent [29, 45, 46].
Bacchi et al., "Nitric oxide and mitochondrial complex IV' IUBMB Life, vol.