mitochondrial DNA

(redirected from Mitochondria DNA)
Also found in: Dictionary.
Related to Mitochondria DNA: Mitochondrial genome, Mitochondrial disease

mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA),

species of DNA present in mitochondria, where it participates in energy metabolism, rather than in the nucleus.

mitochondrial DNA

n. Abbr. mtDNA
DNA that is contained in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and is inherited maternally.

mitochondrial DNA

A small circular DNA molecule of which all MITOCHONDRIA in cells have several copies. It contains 16,569 base pairs and 37 genes. Being present in the cytoplasm of the cell, is transmitted exclusively by the mother. A mature ovum contains about 100,000 copies of mitochondrial DNA; sperms contain none. The genome has been completely sequenced. Its main function is to code for enzymes needed by the mitochondrion. The sites of common mutations, especially deletions, are known as are a number of diseases caused by these defects in the mitochondrial DNA. See MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DISEASES.

mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

the DNA GENOME in the MITOCHONDRION that codes for a number of the organelle's functions. The genome is replicated and transcribed by a separate set of ENZYMES from those of the eukaryotic cell NUCLEUS. In METAZOANS the mtDNA is generally circular, and there appear to be no INTRONS. The GENETIC CODE shows differences from the universal code.
References in periodicals archive ?
Both investigations focused on island populations that have lived in isolation and harbor in their cells' mitochondria DNA that can be dated to its presumably prehistoric roots.
The company is continuing research on mitochondria DNA with the intention of developing a new generation of diagnostic tools using DNA sequencing for the detection of pre-tumor cancers.
This method has been used to evaluate the role of mitochondria DNA genes on the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders.
In Arizona, he has used mitochondria DNA analysis to develop a profile of the entire pronghorn antelope herd in the state.
SIR - Mitochondria bear witness to mankind down the ages - we inherit our mitochondria from our mother, so we can trace our heritage back through human generations, but once we substitute animal mitochondria for human mitochondria DNA we break the chain.