mismatch repair


Also found in: Acronyms.

mis·match re·pair

replacement of mismatched base pairs by removal of the incorrect base and replacement with the correct base by DNA polymerase.

mismatch repair

An intrinsic intracellular mechanism which corrects nucleotide insertion errors made during DNA replication, by excising the mismatched base pairs that escaped correction by the proofreading activities of DNA polymerases and replacing the mismatched bases with the correct ones.

mismatch repair

a DNA REPAIR mechanism that operates to correct errors caused by MISMATCH OF BASES in newly replicated DNA. The newly synthesized DNA strand containing the incorrect BASE is cut, the base removed and the correct base inserted. In ESCHERICHIA COLI, delayed METHYLATION is used as a means of distinguishing the old (parental) DNA strand from the new (daughter) strand of the newly replicated DUPLEX. A METHYL TRANSFERASE ENZYME acts slowly after DNA REPLICATION to ensure that the daughter strand remains undermethylated, relative to the parent strand, for a while. This allows the repair system to recognize the daughter strand and replace the wrong base.
References in periodicals archive ?
Alternatively, tumour immunohistochemistry (IHC) may detect loss of staining for the protein products of one or more of the mismatch repair genes.
Mismatch Repair Pathway Recognition of Mismatched DNA
Mismatch repair and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (HNPCC).
Spearman's correlation analysis was used to calculate the relationship between the CHD9 expression and the several mismatch repair genes including MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2.
The girl suffers from constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome, a hereditary cancer predisposition that typically presents in infancy, childhood or young adulthood.
MSI (microsatellite instability) is a result of epigenetic/hypermethylations or loss of expression in mismatch repair genes (such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2).
It is caused by mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, (8) which is characterised by autosomal dominant inheritance, predominance for right side cancer and early age of onset.
Mismatch repair deficiency predicts response of solid tumors to PD-1 blockade.
Methylation of the DNA mismatch repair gene, MLH1, had previously been determined to lead to MSI [3], and CIMP correlated with the presence of MSI as well as proximal cancer location [46].
The approval of pembrolizumab use for solid tumors with high-level microsatellite instability or mismatch repair deficiency by the US Food and Drug Administration highlights the promise of precision immuno-oncology.
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hypermutable phenotype with a predisposition to genetic mutations due to a deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) system.
Constitutional (Biallelic) Mismatch Repair Deficiency (BMMRD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset cancers as early as the first decade of life.