(1.) Public Health Service, "Responsibilities of Awardee and Applicant Institutions for Dealing With and Reporting Possible Misconduct in Science: Final Rule," Federal Register 54 (1989): 32,449.
(2.) National Science Foundation, "Misconduct in Science and Engineering: Final Rule," Federal Register 56 (1991): 22,287.
In roughly two years' time, the Office of Scientific Integrity of the Public Health Service (PHS) closed 110 alleged cases of misconduct in science, completing full investigations of 21 cases, and finding misconduct in 15 of the cases [(34) pp.
Psychological factors probably do play a part in scientific misconduct, but the arguments and evidence linking personality to misconduct in science are too thin and unsystematic to warrant much credence.
With that quote from Albert Einstein, a 22-member panel of scientists, attorneys, research administrators, historians and philosophers released their long-awaited report on misconduct in science. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) appointed the panel in 1989 after a number of scientific misconduct cases received publicity (SN: 2/11/89, p.85).
"Misconduct in science is a serious issue that requires scientists and research institutions to take explicit action to protect the integrity of research," the committee concludes.
"What Is Misconduct in Science
?" Science, 261 (9 July 1993), 148--49, 183.
The definitions and boundaries of misconduct in science
and research are important public policy issues.
Despite growing evidence of misconduct in science
during the 1970s, as the decade of the 1980s began, the nation's research universities had not developed or even thought much about scientific misconduct policies.
This conclusion was derived from a review of six survey studies that measured the extent of misconduct in science
Therefore, both the government and the academic community need effective procedures for dealing with misconduct in science
Data audits in investigational drug trials and their implications for detection of misconduct in science
. In S.