inorganic acid

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Related to Mineral acid: organic acid


1. sour.
2. a substance that yields hydrogen ions in solution and from which hydrogen may be displaced by a metal to form a salt. For the various acids, see under the specific name, such as acetic acid. All acids react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). Other properties of acids include a sour taste and the ability to cause certain dyes to undergo a color change. A common example of this is the ability of acids to change litmus paper from blue to red.

Inorganic acids are distinguished as binary or hydracids, and ternary or oxyacids; the former contain no oxygen; in the latter, the hydrogen is united to an electronegative element by oxygen. The hydracids are distinguished by the prefix hydro-. The names of acids end in -ic, except in the case in which there are two degrees of oxygenation. The acid containing the greater amount of oxygen has the termination -ic, the one having the lesser amount has the termination -ous. Acids with the termination -ic form the salts ending in -ate; those ending in -ous form the salts ending in -ite. The salts of hydracids end in -ide. These rules are demonstrated by the acids and salts: hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), sulfurous acid (H2SO3), sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). Acids are called monobasic, dibasic, tribasic, and tetrabasic, respectively, when they contain one, two, three, or four replaceable hydrogen atoms.

The most common organic acids are carboxylic acids, containing the carboxyl group (-COOH); examples are acetic acid, citric acid, amino acids, and fatty acids. Their salts and esters end in -ate, e.g., ethyl acetate. Other organic acids are phenols and sulfonic acids.

Acids play a vital role in the chemical processes that are a normal part of the functions of the cells and tissues of the body. A stable balance between acids and bases in the body is essential to life. See also acid-base balance.
acid elution test air-dried blood smears are fixed in 80 per cent methanol and immersed in a pH 3.3 buffer; all hemoglobins are eluted except fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is seen in red blood cells after staining.
inorganic acid an acid containing no carbon atoms.
acid perfusion test Bernstein test.
acid phosphatase a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate esters liberating inorganic phosphate and has an optimal pH of about 5.0. Serum activity of the prostatic isoenzyme is greatly increased in metastatic cancer of the prostate and is used to monitor the course of the disease.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

in·or·gan·ic ac·id

an acid made up of molecules not containing organic radicals; for example, HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

in·or·gan·ic ac·id

(in'ōr-gan'ik as'id)
An acid made up of molecules not containing organic radicals.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Overall, organic acid hydrolysis is more sustainable and environment-friendly than mineral acid hydrolysis for CNCs production.
For each fluid studied (deionised water, 0.1 M acetic acid, and with 0.13 M mineral acid), one experiment was chosen from the batch tests to compare the dissolution properties of each fluid.
Novelty in wet-acid digestion on hot plate lies in applying 6 different compositions of nitric acid with oxidants and other mineral acids i.e.
When mineral acids such as hydrochloric acid or hydrobromic acid are added, hydrogen ions protonate the individual components and the structure falls apart.
Silk is resistant to most mineral acids, except for sulphuric acid, which dissolves it.
It is resistant in most organic acids, mineral acids as well as in strong alkaline and saline solutions.
Miri also uses age-old crafting practices -- the wool is prepared for dyeing using natural mineral salts and mineral acids, such as lactic and citric acids, found in yoghurt and lime.
This equipment helps detect drugs, explosives, toxical industrial chemicals, oil products, dissolvents, mineral acids, inorganic substances, phytogenic materials.This is a unique equipment used in Germany by the German Criminal Police officers only.In Kyrgyzstan, this equipment will be used by the Drug Control Agency officers.
The urethane systems stand up to grease, alkalis, food and mineral acids and are moisture tolerant and designed to get plants back up and running quickly.
Additionally, it is resistant to mineral acids, alkali, and salt solutions.