Twenty sacrificial microcosms
were established for each of the temperature conditions in 160 ml glass serum bottles with Teflon-lined stoppers and aluminum crimp caps.
coincided with the lowest water temperatures in the microcosms
, and at temperatures similar to those that caused death in our laboratory experiments, other potential sources of lethality were considered.
MEAN [+ or -] SD VALUES * OF CARBON CONTENT AND DRY MASS IN LEAF LITTER AND MINERAL SOIL LAYERS OF EXPERIMENTAL MICROCOSMS
(MACROFAUNA NON-ACCESSIBLE; MACROFAUNA ACCESSIBLE; AND ARMADILLIDIUM VULGARE-COLONIZED) AT THE BEGINNING (INITIAL) AND AT THE END (FINAL) OF 3 MONTHS EXPOSURE (JUL 15 TO OCT 15, 2006) IN A CENTRAL FLORIDA HARDWOOD FOREST.
For each experiment, duplicate or triplicate microcosms
(160-mL) were prepared in the same way as the viable 2-CP- and 3-CB-amended mesocosms and periodically sampled to evaluate the reproducibility of the nucleic acid and chemical data obtained with the mesocosms (Becker 1998).
To expose the microcosms
to ambient outdoor light and temperature, they were incubated on the flat roof of Shoemaker Hall on the University of Mississippi campus.
In our opinion, the papers cited by Carpenter (1996) do not constitute evidence of a significant disconnection between microcosms
and natural systems, and his conclusions about these papers misrepresent the current understanding of relationships between microcosms
and natural systems.
In our work with more than 25 companies from a variety of industries during the past two years, we have developed an approach that attacks the problem in microcosms
. With the new approach, an improvement program will no longer take several years to deliver impact.
Although experimental microcosms
tend to be physically and chemically simple, they can be manipulated to change ecological opportunities, competition, environmental conditions, and selective pressures.
can be incubated statically to produce a heterogeneous environment with spatial structure and, in these, P.
Whereas, soil microcosms
amended with H2O and Na2SO4 showed almost similar trend of methane oxidation activity and consumed 3 times of added methane (about ~13000 nm g-1 d.w.s.) after incubation for 28 days (Fig.
While the "atom"--the most basic unit--of horn technique is moving from one note in the overtone series to an adjacent note in that series--we won't go quite that small for our Valveless Microcosms
After 20 wks, microcosms
were sampled destructively to recover earthworms, which were then counted and weighed (after clearing the gut for 48 h) to determine earthworm weight gain or loss within each microcosm