The IC values were as follows for the PTs menstruation delayed 28.2 (95% CI, 28.03-28.44), breast tenderness 12.38 (95% CI, 12.12-12.63), dysmenorrhea 9.7 (95% CI, 9.46-9.97), nipple disorder 4.8 (95% CI, 4.20-5.39), metrorrhagia
4.2 (95% CI, 3.96-4.43), menorrhagia 1.87 (95% CI, 1.57-2.16), premenstrual syndrome 1.52 (95% CI, -0.61-1.65), and breast enlargement 1.16 (95% CI, 0.38-1.93) (Table 1).
Hence, variations in body fat result in various menstrual irregularities such as menorrhagia, hypomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, metrorrhagia
, and amenorrhea.
Disturbance in the menstrual pattern can be metrorrhagia
(irregular vaginal bleeding) continuous bleeding or spotting PV and menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding).
In a study on 1708 subjects (age range: 17-49 years) observed for 26,554 cycles, the most common adverse events reported as reasons for EE20/LNG100 discontinuation were headache (2% of subjects) and metrorrhagia
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) includes menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding), metrorrhagia
(bleeding in between menses) and hypermenorrhea (menses too long).
In an uncontrolled study, Vitex reduced elevated prolactin levels in 80% of 34 women with hyperprolactinemia at a dosage of 30-40 mg per day for one month and improved symptoms of a variety of menstrual disorders including secondary amenorrhea, cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium, deficient corpus luteum function, metrorrhagia
, polymenorrhea and oligomenorrhea (Bone 2003).
In 19-year old women, following abortion due to unplanned pregnancy four times curettage was performed due to metrorrhagia
, which was believed to be caused by the residua of placental tissue in uterine cavity.
Indicated for bleeding associated to hyperfibrinolysis (metrorrhagia
, upper GI bleeding, dental bleeding) and surgical bleeding prophylaxis (cardiac surgery, major orthopedic surgery, liver transplantation).
(uterine bleeding at irregular intervals).
Especially if metrorrhagia
is noted, an endometrial biopsy is performed at the completion of the procedure.
It is indicated for treatment of: symptoms related to venolymphatic insufficiency and treatment of metrorrhagia
related to micro progestoron contracepation.
Endometrial polyps were diagnosed by diagnostic hysteroscopy, and AUB was defined as menorrhagia, metrorrhagia
or intermenstrual bleeding.