Antibacterial constituents and mechanisms identified include hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl glyoxal (MGO), bee defensin-1, the osmotic effect, and pH effects.
Antibacterial properties of honey are the result of the low water activity causing osmosis, chelation of free iron, its slow release of hydrogen peroxide, high acidity, and the antibacterial activity of methyl glyoxal. Honey appears to be effective in killing drug-resistant biofilms which are implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis.
Rutin, MGO (methyl glyoxal, 40% aqueous solution), phosphate buffers i.e., sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ), disodium hydrogen phosphate HPO 4 ), and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich.
For the determination of the ability of the candidate compounds to inhibit the methyl glyoxal (MGO) this test was used, and examine the development of fluorescence of Bovine serum albumin (BSA).
An aromatic component (Diacetyl) is one of the identified mutagens, as is the closely related methyl glyoxal, which is highly mutagenic in bacteria,
Preliminary evidence indicates that methyl glyoxal is a carcinogen in injection tests in rats.
This may result in their failure to form acetal linkage with methyl glyoxal. Furthermore there was a possibility of unstable hemiacetal formation which does not contribute in the overall antiglycation effect of these molecules.
This test was used to evaluate the ability of the candidate compounds to inhibit the methyl glyoxal mediated development of fluorescence of BSA.