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Archaea bacteria containing gram-negative and gram-positive, motile or nonmotile, strictly anaerobic rods and cocci, which obtain energy either by the reduction of carbon dioxide to form methane or by the fermentation of compounds such as acetate and methanol with the production of methane and carbon dioxide; they are found in anaerobic habitats such as sediments of natural waters, soil, anaerobic sewage digestors, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
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The family Methanobacteriaceae. In: The Prokaryotes: Other Major Lineages of Bacteria and the Archaea (Eds.
Predominant hindgut archaeal species among methanogens were Methanobrevibacter (75, 72, and 49%), Methanosphaera (3.3, 2.3, and 3.4%), and Methanobacteriaceae (1.2, 0.6, and 0.7%) population in control, 15, and 30% PB, respectively, and they were linearly decreased or increased with increasing PB concentration (P < 0.05).
Archaea group Closest match Similarity (%) Methylotrophic Methanosardna 80 methanogens acetivorans strain C2A Methanomethylovorans hollandica strain DSM 93 15978 Methanomethylovorans hollandica strain DMS1 99 Hydrogen otrophic Methanolinea mesophila 86 methanogens strain TNR Methanolinea tarda 86 strain NOBI-1 Methanoregula formicica 82 strain SMSP Acetoclastic Methanosaeta concilii 89 methanogens strain GP6 Methanosaeta concilii 94 strain Opfikon Methanosardna mazei 98 Gol Methanosaeta 99 harundinacea Another Archaea Uncultured 88 methanogenic archaeon Methanogenic prokaryote 99 enrichment culture Uncultured archaeon 91 clone Uncultured Methanobacteriaceae 92 archaeon Uncultured 99 Methanosaeta sp.
Phylogenetic analyses of the methanogenic Archaea community revealed a great diversity of methanogens in the permafrost including families of Methanobacteriaceae, Methanomicrobiaceae, Methanosarcinaceae, Methanosaetaceae [16,17,19,20], methanogen group Rice cluster I (RC-I) and uncultured Rice cluster II (RC II) within the phylogenetic radiation of Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales [19, 21-23] and ZC-I affiliated to Methanosarcinales [20], permafrost cluster I affiliated to Methanosarcinaceae [19], and permafrost cluster II and III affiliated to Methanosarcinales [19].