Influence of the seasonal and environmental patterns and host reproduction on the metazoan
parasites of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) (Prochilodontidae) of the Upper Parana' River floodplain, Brazil.
With the availability of increasing sequence data across eukaryotes, it has become apparent that eIF4E3 are widespread in most metazoan
phyla from Cnidaria to Chordata, but are conspicuously absent in plants, fungi, and Porifera.
Thus, given the absence of functional data for non-bilaterian animals (i.e., ctenophores and sponges), and given recent evidence concerning greater Hc distribution in animals, we revive the discussion about whether all metazoan
Hcs shared a common origin with frequent losses (Martfn-Duran et al., 2013), or whether Hcs originated separately after the Lophotrochozoa and the Ecdysozoa diverged (van Holde et al., 2001).
parasite of lambari Astyanax altiparanae, collected from the Peixe river, Sao Paulo, southeast of Brazil.
parasite infracommunities in five sciaenid from the central Peruvian coast.
"We found no evidence that these metazoans
were living or reproducing in the deepest part of the interface," Bernhard said.
parasites from fishes of Middle Georgia.
was found to be the lineage closest to the metazoans
. This is a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for metazoans
and Capsaspora sp., not previously observed in traditional taxonomies.
Calcareous algae (including Dasyporella and Vermiporella) are the most important in situ microfossils in thin sections (up to 15%), but their overall contribution is low relative to metazoans
. Therefore these reefs are metazoan-dominated (Chen et al.
Although there was clearly a major burst of evolutionary innovation and diversification in the first 20 million years or so of the Cambrian, this was preceded by an extended period of about 40 million years during which metazoans
arose and attained critical levels of anatomical complexity.
Sponges (phylum Porifera) form one of the most ancestral groups of metazoans
and are challenging to identify and classify because they display a range of morphological plasticity.
Among the intermediate steps are the evolution of the metazoans
, leaving the water, dinosaurs, the modernization of land and sea, and evolving toward humans.