This finding suggests that language learners make use of metacognitive strategies
. The use of metacognitive strategies
incorporates the ability to predict, plan, evaluate, and monitor knowledge efficiently and accurately; and they can facilitate and accelerate the whole process of transfer of strategies from one language (LI, L2) to the other (Wenden, 1999); additionally, it enables learners to achieve knowledge.
Knowledge or beliefs in one's own cognitive resources and his awareness about what to do in particular situation is better be referred to as knowledge about metacognitive strategies
. Therefore, present study also assessed the significance of knowledge about metacognitive strategies
in the modification of study habits.
Evans's (2008) study of 22 first-year students who were also enrolled in an English-language program found metacognitive strategies
useful both for reading comprehension and reading-to-write activities.
The study developed by Tsai (2009) applied an instrument that sought to evaluate the behavioral, procedural and metacognitive strategies
of students when searching for information on the web.
The result demonstrates that the proposed metacognitive strategies
of computer-assisted learning support (metacognitive scaffolding, reflective prompts, self-assessment, self-questioning, self-directed learning and graphic organizer) helps learners in improving their learning performance in computer programming, especially in knowledge monitoring and problem-solving.
In this study, learning strategies are defined as any general learning methods used to achieve better learning outcomes, including metacognitive strategies
(monitoring, regulating, planning, etc.), cognitive strategies (specific learning methods, such as previewing before class, note-taking while learning, reviewing lessons regularly, taking more practises and so on), motivational strategies (attitudes and motivation), and social strategies (getting help from others, extensive social learning).
Vann and Abraham, for example, highlighted the significance of metacognitive strategies
in facilitating overall task achievement, and noted that less effective language learners may use LLS inappropriately, being unable to "assess the task and bring to bear the necessary strategies for its completion" (191).
Since some researchers have found (Chang and Read 2006, 2008; Kurita 2012; Nosratinia, Ghavidel and Zaker 2015; Ratebi and Amirian 2013) that listening support in tasks enhances the learners' use of metacognitive strategies
(1) in listening comprehension, they usually advise textbook writers to include the following: information about the topic so that learners can grasp detailed information; a warm up activity before listening to prepare the students for what is coming next; and vocabulary instruction, though this is the least useful form of support (Chang and Read 2006).
The finding indicates that female students exhibited higher scores in Metacognitive strategies
and cognitive strategies as compared to male students.
These include metacognitive strategies
, which are used for organizing and evaluating the learning process; affective strategies used for managing emotional states and attitudes; and social strategies used for learning cooperatively with others.
These people using cognitive strategies do necessary activities to learn new information and storage of in long term memory and through metacognitive strategies
(self-questioning, self-supervision, and self-regulation) are aware of their cognitive processes.
These cognitive and metacognitive strategies
were intended to help students self-regulate their learning and enhance their self-efficacy to believe they could accomplish the task of comprehending this QRI-5 informational text (Schunk & Zimmerman, 2007), with the hope of transferring the strategies from CSR practice sessions to independent work time and test taking (Klingner et ah, 2012b).