Metabolism

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metabolism

 [mĕ-tab´o-lizm]
2. the sum of the physical and chemical processes by which living organized substance is built up and maintained (anabolism), and by which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules to make energy available to the organism (catabolism). Essentially these processes are concerned with the disposition of the nutrients absorbed into the blood following digestion.

There are two phases of metabolism: the anabolic and the catabolic phases. The anabolic, or constructive, phase is concerned with the conversion of simpler compounds derived from the nutrients into living, organized substances that the body cells can use. In the catabolic, or destructive, phase these organized substances are reconverted into simpler compounds, with the release of energy necessary for the proper functioning of the body cells.

The rate of metabolism can be increased by exercise; by elevated body temperature, as in a high fever, which can more than double the metabolic rate; by hormonal activity, such as that of thyroxine, insulin, and epinephrine; and by specific dynamic action that occurs following the ingestion of a meal.

The basal metabolic rate refers to the lowest rate obtained while an individual is at complete physical and mental rest. Metabolic rate usually is expressed in terms of the amount of heat liberated during the chemical reactions of metabolism. About 25 per cent of all energy from nutrients is utilized by the body to carry on its normal function; the remainder becomes heat.
basal metabolism the minimal energy expended for the maintenance of respiration, circulation, peristalsis, muscle tonus, body temperature, glandular activity, and the other vegetative functions of the body.

me·tab·o·lism

(mĕ-tab'ō-lizm),
1. The sum of the chemical and physical changes occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism (those reactions that convert small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules as well as biodegradation of xenobiotics.
2. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for either anabolism or catabolism.
[G. metabolē, change]

metabolism

(mĭ-tăb′ə-lĭz′əm)
n.
1. The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized.
2. The processing of a specific substance within a living cell or organism: iodine metabolism.

metabolism

The sum of the processes by which a chemical or biomolecule is handled by the body.

EBM
The biochemical alteration of substances introduced into the body.

Physiology
The sum of all physical and chemical processes involved in producing (anabolism) and consuming (catabolism) bioactive compounds to maintain life.

Therapeutics 
The manner in which a drug is acted upon—taken up, converted to other substances and excreted—by various tissues.

me·tab·o·lism

(mĕ-tab'ŏ-lizm)
1. The sum of the chemical and physical changes occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism, those reactions that convert small molecules into large, and catabolism, those reactions that convert large molecules into small, including both endogenous large molecules as well as biodegradation of xenobiotics.
2. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for either anabolism or catabolism.
[G. metabolē, change]

metabolism

The totality of the body's cellular chemical activity, largely under the influence of enzymes, that results in work and growth or repair. The ‘building-up’ aspects of metabolism are known as anabolic and the ‘breaking-down’ as catabolic. Metabolism involves the consumption of fuel (glucose and fatty acids), the production of heat and the utilization of many constructional and other biochemical elements provided in the diet, such as AMINO ACIDS, fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and trace elements. The basal metabolic rate is increases in certain disorders, such as hyperthyroidism, and decreases in others. Anabolism can be artificially promoted by the use of certain steroid make sex hormones (androgens or anabolic steroids).

metabolism

the sum total of the chemical processes occurring in cells by which energy is stored in molecules (ANABOLISM) or released from molecules (CATABOLISM), life being maintained by a balance between the rates of catabolic and anabolic processes. All metabolic reactions occur in steps, in which compounds are gradually built up or broken down. Each step of the ‘metabolic pathway’ is catalysed by a different enzyme whose structure is coded by a specific gene, the end product being called a ‘metabolite’. A special energy-carrying molecule called ATP is involved in these processes. See BASAL METABOLIC RATE.

Metabolism

All the physical and chemical changes that occur in cells to allow growth and maintain body functions. These include processes that break down substances to yield energy and processes that build up other substances necessary for life.

me·tab·o·lism

(mĕ-tab'ŏ-lizm)
Sum of chemical and physical changes occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism (those reactions that convert small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules and biodegradation of xenobiotics.
[G. metabolē, change]

Patient discussion about Metabolism

Q. How is it possible to have permanent weight loss if dieting slows down metabolism? well, i know that eating less will have the body adjust to the new calorie intake and thus, no further weight loss. So how is it possible to have permanent weight loss if eating less doesn't work? Please give tips and suggestions, people who have successfully lost weight. thanks so much!

A. That is why you need to cycle every few weeks. Change things up and shock your body because it does plateau. But if you challenge yourself every so often you will see results continuously.

Q. How could one boost metabolism by diet? I am aware for long that metabolism is the cause for poor health and fitness.So how could one boost metabolism by diet?

A. Metabolism, if it is not erroneous genetically; then it can be controlled or increased by any diet. What matters is the timing and regularity you feed yourself which uses your hormones and enzymes in your body to do the task they are for. This timing and regularity depends on eating in same time regularly and working and sleeping too. To excite some hormones even if they had switched off their action in body, can be excited by exercise and feeding with small diets in regular short time intervals. To make all this happen, reduce on junk foods, please.

Q. How does coffee affect a diet? does it have an affect on metabolism? on losing weight?

A. Well, coffee can increase and to accelerate the beginning of burning fat during exercise (usually only after 20-30 minutes of exercise), but the overall effect is not that substantial. YOu should remember that it makes your kidney to produce more urine, so you should drink more.

More discussions about Metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
This substance with an aromatic azo structure induced gene mutations in tester strain TA98 in the presence of S9 metabolization mix.
Acetaldehyde, a toxic by-product of ethanol metabolization, has been described as a causative agent of the alterations to the CNS during its consumption (Hunt, 1996; Bergamaschi et al., 1988; Zimatkin & Deitrich, 1997; Thadani & Truitt, 1977; Heap et al., 1995).
Apparent metabolizable energy (aME) and apparent metabolization coefficient of gross energy (CMAEB) of control diet and experimental diet (containing 3% acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste-FSARP) for commercial laying hens.
Carbohydrate metabolization by various isolates of Trichoderma species
The incubation with LQB 123 in the absence or in the presence of exogenous metabolization showed no mutagenic activity over the sensitive strains (mutagenic index [less than or equal to] 2).
It has been shown that the presence of a portosystemic shunt is able to reduce the metabolization rate of methacetin even if the liver function is normal [13].
luminyensis in the intestines of patients and the simultaneous metabolization of TMA could reduce the accumulation of TMA in the intestines and could prevent the fish-like odor [14].
Then, after moving the scaffolds to collection tubes, the dark-blue formazan crystals produced by cell metabolization were solubilized by pipetting to induce cell lysis with a 2-propanol/1 N HCl solution, and absorbances at A = 550 nm were measured by a spectrophotometer.
This intolerance is related to lack of the required enzyme lactase ([beta]-galactosidase) in the digestive system that inhibits the metabolization of lactose into galactose and glucose [6].
It is reasonable to assume that the reduced metabolization of nitrate helps cells to provide them with enough NADPH to neutralize the deleterious effects of the oxidative stress-generating agents, but other explanations should also be considered.
In this review, we begin with a comprehensive view of lipid metabolism in healthy skeletal muscle, covering uptake, metabolization, and storage.
The metabolization process of a substance acts as a body's defense system, leading to the modification of foreign substances (xenobiotics) by chemical processes to promote their elimination from the organism (20).