pertaining to or of the nature of metabolism.
metabolic disease a disease caused by some defect in the chemical reactions of the cells of the body.
a combination including at least three of the following: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia
, low level of high-density lipoproteins
, and high fasting plasma glucose
level. It is associated with an increased risk for development of diabetes mellitus
and cardiovascular disease.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
a group of metabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is defined as the presence of any three of the following: 1) increased waist circumference (>102 cm for men, >88 cm for women), 2) elevated triglycerides >150 mg/dL, 3) low HDL cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dL for men, less than 50 mg/dL for women), 4) hypertension (systolic BP >130 and/or diastolic >85) or antihypertensive medication use, 5) impaired fasting glucose (>110 mg/dL).
The metabolic syndrome comprises several abnormalities, each an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which have been associated on the premise of a unitary cause. The components of the syndrome are (1) insulin resistance manifested by fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dL (6.11 mmol/L) or higher, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia (2) central obesity, defined as a waist circumference over 40 inches (102 cm) in men and over 35 inches (89 cm) in women; (3) systemic hypertension (systolic blood pressure over 130, diastolic pressure over 85); (4) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol less than 40 mg/dL (1.03 mmol/L) in men and less than 50 mg/dL (1.29 mmol/L) in women; and (5) triglyceride 150 mg/dL (1.69 mmol/L) or more. For both men and women with all five of these stigmata, the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke are more than twice those of the general population. Additional features of the syndrome sometimes noted are high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, hyperuricemia, ovarian hyperproduction of androgen, and hypercoagulability of the blood. When the syndrome is defined as the presence of at least 3 of the 5 numbered disorders above, it is estimated to affect 23% of adults in the U.S. (approximately 47 million persons), including 10-15 million with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). It is particularly prevalent among non white populations in both developing and industrialized nations, and in those populations its prevalence is disproportionately high among children. The basis for the syndrome is genetic, and insulin resistance is considered the primary metabolic defect. There is considerable overlap between genetic pools of those with metabolic syndrome and of those with type 2 DM. Adoption of a sedentary lifestyle and development of obesity are believed to promote progression toward the fully developed syndrome and toward DM. The treatment of metabolic syndrome, directed at prevention of cardiovascular disease and of progression to type 2 DM, consists of aggressive efforts to identify patients so affected and to correct all metabolic abnormalities identified. Weight control by adoption of a low-calorie, low-cholesterol diet and regular aerobic exercise is essential. Hypertension and lipid abnormalities are corrected with pharmacologic agents.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
A combination of metabolic abnormalities that sometimes accompany abdominal obesity, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, elevated fasting blood levels of glucose, and elevated blood pressure, and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
metabolic syndrome A condition characterised by dysregulation of serum glucose, insulin resistance, a predisposition to type-2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, decreased HDL-C, abdominal obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
metabolic syndrome Vascular disease A clustering of medical conditions–ASHD, type 2 DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, often linked to claudication
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
met·a·bol·ic syn·drome (met'ă-bol'ik sin'drōm)
A group of health risks that increase the chances of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The criteria for this syndrome are any 3 of these 5 risk factors: (1) BP > 130/80 mmHg; (2) abdominal obesity (men > 40 inches and women > 35 inches); (3) triglycerides > 150 mg/dL; (4) HDL cholesterol for men < 40 mg/dL and women < 50 mg/dL; and (5) fasting glucose > 110mg/dL.
Synonym(s): insulin-resistance syndrome
, multiple metabolic syndrome
, syndrome X
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
metabolic syndrome A dangerous development in obese people that features low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised triglycerides, glucose intolerance with insulin resistance and raised blood pressure. The syndrome seriously increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. An amendment to the definition published in late 2005 stresses the importance of a waist circumference of more than 94 cm in men or 80 cm in women and blood pressures of greater than 130/85. The metabolic syndrome is common in Western populations with a high prevalence of obesity. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in 2003 that 24 per cent of the US adult population had the metabolic syndrome. The syndrome is transmitted through the mother and there are recent indications that it is the result of a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
A group of risk factors for heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. It includes abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood glucose levels, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The metabolic syndrome is sometimes called the insulin resistance syndrome.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
met·a·bol·ic syn·drome (met'ă-bol'ik sin'drōm)
Group of metabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012