mercury poisoning

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mercury

 (Hg) [mer´ku-re]
a chemical element, atomic number 80, atomic weight 200.59. (See Appendix 6.) Mercury forms two sets or classes of compounds: mercurous, in which a single atom of mercury combines with a monovalent radical, and mercuric, in which a single atom of mercury combines with a bivalent radical. Mercury and its salts can be absorbed by the skin and mucous membranes, causing chronic poisoning (see mercury poisoning). The mercuric salts are more soluble and irritant than the mercurous.
ammoniated mercury a compound used as an antiseptic skin and ophthalmic ointment. It should be applied with caution, as excessive use may irritate the skin and cause dermatitis.
mercury bichloride an extremely poisonous compound formerly used in treatment of syphilis but now used only as a disinfectant.
mercury poisoning acute or chronic disease caused by exposure to mercury or its salts; an important aspect is its toxic effect on the brain, causing impaired judgment, memory loss, sleeplessness, and nervousness. The acute form, due to ingestion, is marked by severe abdominal pain, metallic taste in the mouth, vomiting, oliguria or anuria at onset, followed by bloody diarrhea, and corrosion and ulceration of the entire digestive tract. The chronic form, due to absorption by the skin and mucous membranes, inhalation of vapors, or ingestion of mercury salts, is marked by stomatitis, metallic taste in the mouth, a blue line along the border of the gum, sore hypertrophied gums that bleed easily, loosening of the teeth, excessive salivation, tremors and incoordination, and psychiatric symptoms including abnormal excitability, anxiety, and social withdrawal. A common cause of chronic mercury poisoning is the ingestion of contaminated fish. Because of this, some fishing areas are posted with signs recommending limiting consumption of fish caught there. See also minamata disease.
Treatment. Treatment consists of removal of the source of exposure and administration of a chelating agent. Exchange transfusions and removal of mercury by surgery are options in selected patients. Consultation with a toxicologist is warranted.

mer·cu·ry poi·son·ing

a disease usually caused by the ingestion or inhalation of mercury or mercury compounds, which are toxic in relation to their ability to produce mercuric ions; usually acute mercury poisoning is associated with ulcerations of the mouth (including loosening of teeth), stomach, and intestine in addition to toxic changes in the renal tubules; anuria and anemia may occur; respiratory distress and pneumonia can follow inhalation; usually chronic mercury poisoning is a result of industrial pollution; causes gastrointestinal or central nervous system manifestations including stomatitis, diarrhea, headaches, ataxia, tremor, hyperreflexia, sensorineural impairment, and emotional instability and sometimes delirium.
See also: Mad Hatter syndrome.

mer·cu·ry poi·son·ing

(mĕr'kyūr-ē poy'zŏn-ing)
A disease usually caused by the ingestion of mercury or mercury compounds, which are toxic in relation to their ability to produce mercuric ions; acute mercury poisoning is usually associated with ulcerations of the stomach and intestine and toxic changes in the renal tubules; anuria and anemia may occur; chronic mercury poisoning is usually a result of industrial poisoning and causes gastrointestinal or central nervous system manifestations including stomatitis, diarrhea, ataxia, tremor, hyperreflexia, sensorineural impairment, and emotional instability (Mad Hatter syndrome).
Synonym(s): hydrargyria, hydrargyrism, mercurialism.

mercury poisoning

The toxic effect of ingestion of mercury compounds either in large doses (acute poisoning) or in small doses over a period (chronic poisoning). Acute mercury poisoning causes nausea and vomiting, pain in the abdomen and diarrhoea. Chronic poisoning, as from the inhalation of mercury vapour, causes brain damage with staggering, tunnel vision, garbled speech, severe tremor and emotional disturbances.

mer·cu·ry poi·son·ing

(mĕr'kyūr-ē poy'zŏn-ing)
Disease usually caused by ingestion or inhalation of mercury or mercury compounds, which are toxic in relation to their ability to produce mercuric ions; acute mercury poisoning is associated with ulcerations of mouth (including loosening of teeth), stomach, and intestine in addition to toxic changes in the renal tubules; anuria and anemia may occur; respiratory distress and pneumonia can follow inhalation; chronic mercury poisoning is due to industrial pollution; causes gastrointestinal or central nervous system manifestations including stomatitis, diarrhea, headaches, ataxia, tremor, hyperreflexia, sensorineural impairment, and emotional instability and sometimes delirium.
References in periodicals archive ?
Protective effects of selenium against mercury toxicity in cultured Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella plagiodon) renal cells.
Diagnosing elemental mercury toxicity depends on exposure history and clinical manifestations.
Speciation studies are very important in the accurate prediction of the toxicity of the mercury in the environment because mercury toxicity depends on its chemical form.
Despite this distribution, the pituitary gland is not very sensitive to the effects of mercury toxicity when compared with the cerebellum or cortex.
Mercury toxicity. Medscape Reference; Oct 20, 2014.
Mercury toxicity is also noted with these elevated copper findings.
All Americans will be forced to spend more money for--and be at risk of mercury toxicity from--every fight fixture in the house."
"I think our population should be reassured that it is unlikely, because mercury toxicity occurs when mercury is vaporized and inhaled, and all of this was simply skin exposure ...
Mild mercury toxicity can cause fatigue, loss of concentration, depression, and headaches.
In short, it was our evaluation of the scientific information on mercury toxicity that made us decide that a comparison of ingested methyl mercury and inhaled mercury vapor was valid and useful.
So mercury toxicity is mostly due to methyl, not ethyl, mercury and the body rids itself of ethyl far faster than methyl.
At its lowest levels, mercury toxicity can produce physical symptoms that may not point immediately to the cause.