mental disorder

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mental

 [men´tal]
1. pertaining to the mind.
2. pertaining to the chin.
mental disorder any clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome characterized by distressing symptoms, significant impairment of functioning, or significantly increased risk of death, pain, or other disability. Mental disorders are assumed to result from some behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual. The concept does not include deviant behavior, disturbances that are essentially conflicts between the individual and society, or expected and culturally sanctioned responses to particular events.
mental retardation less than average general intellectual functioning that brings with it some degree of impaired adaptation in learning, social adjustment, or maturation, or in all three areas; it is now classified as a developmental disability.

Mental retardation is a relative term. Its meaning depends on what society demands of the individual in learning, skills, and social responsibility. Many people who are considered developmentally challenged in the complex modern world would get along normally in a simpler society.

Diagnosis: There is no absolute measurement for retardation. At one time the different types were classified only according to the apparent severity of the retardation. Since the most practical standard was intelligence, the degree of retardation was based on the score of the patient on intelligence tests such as the intelligence quotient (IQ). The average person is considered to have an IQ of between 90 and 110, and those who score below 70 are considered mentally retarded.

In the past, the different groupings were classified in terms such as feebleminded, idiot, imbecile, and moron. Today, most health care providers use the following classifications: for IQ's from 50 to 70, mild; 35 to 50, moderate; 20 to 35, severe; under 20, profound. Whatever classifications are used, it is agreed that IQ measurements are only one part of the factors to be considered in determining mental retardation. Others, such as the patient's adaptability to surroundings, the services and training available, and the amount of control shown over his or her emotions, are also very important.

About 85 per cent of patients considered mentally retarded are in the least severe, or mild, group. Those in this group do not usually have obvious physical defects and thus are not always easy to identify as mentally retarded while they are still infants. Sometimes such a child's mental defects do not show up until the time of entering school, when the child has difficulty learning and keeping up with others in the same age group. Many persons who are in the mild category, as adults can find employment or a place in society suitable to their abilities, so that they are no longer identified as mentally retarded.

Cause: The cause of mental retardation is often unidentifiable; known ones are classified as either genetic or acquired. Genetic conditions include chromosomal abnormalities such as down syndrome and klinefelter's syndrome and errors of metabolism such as phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism, and tay-sachs disease. Acquired conditions may be prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal. Prenatal conditions include rubella and other viral infections, toxins, placental insufficiency, and blood type incompatibility. Perinatal causes are anoxia, birth injury, and prematurity. Postnatal causes may include infections, poisons, poor nutrition, trauma, and sociocultural factors such as deprivation.

Many conditions that can cause severe retardation can be diagnosed during pregnancy, and in some cases proper treatment can lessen or even prevent retardation. Proper care for the mother during pregnancy and for the baby in the first months of life is also important.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

men·tal dis·or·der

a psychological syndrome or behavioral pattern that is associated with subjective distress and/or objective impairment.
See also: mental illness, behavior disorder.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

mental disorder

n.
Any of various disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or autism spectrum disorder, characterized by a distressing or disabling impairment of an individual's cognitive, emotional, or social functioning.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

mental disorder

A clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning), or with significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability or an important loss of freedom. This syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event (for example, the death of a loved one).
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

mental disorder

Mental illness Psychology '…a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual.associated with present distress–eg, a painful Sx or disability–ie, impairment in one or more important areas of functioning or with significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom…this syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event, for example, the death of a loved one'
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

men·tal dis·or·der

(men'tăl dis-ōr'dĕr)
A psychological syndrome or behavioral pattern associated with either subjective distress or objective impairment.
See also: mental illness, behavior disorder
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

men·tal dis·or·der

(men'tăl dis-ōr'dĕr)
Psychological syndrome or behavioral pattern associated with subjective distress and/or objective impairment.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about mental disorder

Q. Regarding mental illness My mom is suffering from mental illness. As she remains absent minded through out the day, moreover remains silent (talkless), suffering with idiot ideas. Pls advise me how may i resolve this prob. She is sufferring from last 4 years....!!! and now it has increased. We are also under supervision of phycologist but he used to kept her on sleep as alternative. I need yr some corrective suggestion & help. Regards Parth

A. Parth- Dan could be right, there might be another diagnosis for your mother. it sounds like late stages of Parkinson's, but that would be hard to miss due to a very clear first stages.. if Schizophrenia was diagnosed properly - you should know that there are cases of recovery but it's about 15%. so it's not much, but a dual treatment can improve her state. is she taking any medication?

Q. Everyone on my mother's side has mental illness and addictions. How do you convince someone they need help? It seems to be an inherited bi-polar disorder. An uncle shot his wife. A brother shot his wife and killed himself. My son has been diagnosed as bi-polar. How do I convince or get help for other family members who are in denial?

A. Thank you so much for your answer; unfortunately the link didn't work. I'll try to get there though. I've been researching and I think it's going to be bi-polar spectrum disorder. Are there any forums exclusively for that?

Q. How do you know the difference if the child has ADHD or have other mental disorders? The child has been of ADHD medication for four years give or take a few months. The problems are getting gradually worse. She has no patience with anything, can’t sit still. She is ten years old but she acts like she is 6.

A. Sometimes, seasonal allergies can intensify behavior. I have a child with adhd who changes dramatically around fall and spring and it takes a couple of months for her to return to a lower level of adhd-ness. I recently took her to an allergist and found out she's allergic to weeds (fall) and a number of trees (spring).

More discussions about mental disorder
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References in periodicals archive ?
"They need to have education and awareness [of] how to deal with people with mental disability. And not [assume] they're all bad and a menace to society."
Seventeenth-century courts were ill-equipped to give claims of mental disability much credence because of this lack of knowledge.
Thomas Couser (2009), Mad at School: Rhetorics of Mental Disability and Academic Life by Margaret Price (2011), and Tell Me How it Reads: Tutoring Deaf and Hearing Students in the Writing Center by Rebecca Day Babcock (2012)--offers distinct but equally important starting points for that project.
They voiced skepticism about the practice in Florida and certain other states of barring an inmate from claiming mental disability when his IQ score is just above 70.
While mental disability remains a rare outcome of IVF, the findings provide "important evidence for parents and clinicians on the relative risks of modern IVF treatments for male infertility," said the study, Xinhua news agency reported.
A JUDGE has condemned a Home Office decision to refuse to give an Afghan with "serious and debilitating mental disability" indefinite leave to remain in the UK for medical treatment.
She said: "As soon as you get a mental disability, you nearly lose all your rights, even to give your opinion."
In cases where the complainant has a mental disability affecting cognition or decisionmaking, prosecutors in Canada have been reluctant to argue that the complainant was incapable of consenting.
On June 26, the International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, the Mental Disability Advocacy Center (MDAC) urges states to ensure that people with disabilities enjoy the universal and absolute right to be free from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment.
Picking these up early can save lives and prevent serious ill effects, including permanent physical and mental disability.