membrane transport


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Related to membrane transport: Membrane transport proteins

membrane transport

The active movement of proteins from the site of production in the cell to the site of storage or to the cell membrane for eventual release. Membrane transport requires:
(1) Translocation-competent membranes (e.g., endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomal membrane and the mitochondrial inner membrane); and
(2) Membrane-targeting signals to direct the molecules, often in the form of an NH2-terminal oligopeptide with peroxisomal target proteins.

The transported protein or preprotein has one of two basic structures: either a completely hydrophilic primary sequence or one which is hydrophilic at both the NH2 and COOH ends, separated in the middle by an apolar hydrophobic core.

membrane transport

movement of charged molecules into/out of the cell via specific cell membrane sites (receptors), e.g. process allowing ingress of local anaesthetic agents into nerve fibre

membrane

a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ.

alveolocapillary membrane
a thin tissue barrier through which gases are exchanged between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries.
membrane-attack complex
complement components C5-C9 which form in terminal stage of either of the complement pathways and lead to cell lysis.
basilar membrane
the lower boundary of the scala media of the ear.
Bowman's membrane
a thin layer of basement membrane between the outer layer of stratified epithelium and the substantia propria of the cornea.
Bruch's membrane
the inner layer of the choroid, separating it from the pigmented layer of the retina.
membrane carrier
a mechanism in the cell membrane of epithelial cells in the intestinal mucosa which facilitates the rapid transport of for example glucose, into the cell and thus into the bloodstream.
cell membrane
plasma membrane (below).
membrane channels
see channel.
continuous membrane
the middle of the three membranes on the outside of the yolk of the hen egg.
cricothyroid membrane
the membrane connecting the thyroid cartilage to the cricoid cartilage. It is extensive in the horse and surgical incision through it allows access to the interior of the larynx.
Descemet's membrane
the posterior lining membrane of the cornea; it is a thin hyaline membrane between the substantia propria and the endothelial layer of the cornea.
drum membrane
tympanic membrane (below).
extraembryonic m's
those that protect the embryo or fetus and provide for its nutrition, respiration and excretion; the yolk sac (umbilical vesicle), allantois, amnion, chorion, decidua and placenta.
extravitelline membrane
the outermost of the three membranes on the outside of the yolk of the hen egg.
false membrane
a membrane similar to the pseudomembrane; fibrinous exudates readily loosened from underlying tissue, as in croupous or pseudomembranous inflammation.
fenestrated membrane
one of the perforated elastic sheets of the tunica intima and tunica media of arteries.
fetal m's
see fetal membranes. See also extraembryonic membranes (above).
fibrous membrane
the strong, fibrous support layer in a joint capsule.
Henle's membrane
see henle's membrane.
hyaline membrane
1. a membrane between the outer root sheath and inner fibrous layer of a hair follicle.
3. a homogeneous eosinophilic membrane lining alveolar ducts and alveoli, frequently found at necropsy in premature human infants. See also hyaline membrane disease.
hyoglossal membrane
a fibrous lamina connecting the under-surface of the tongue with the hyoid bone.
interosseous membrane
the membrane connecting the shaft of the fibula to the tibia.
limiting membrane
one that constitutes the border of some tissue or structure.
mucous membrane
the membrane covered with epithelium that lines many tubular organs of the body.
nictitating membrane
see membrana nictitans.
nuclear membrane
1. either of the membranes, inner and outer, comprising the nuclear envelope.
2. nuclear envelope.
olfactory membrane
the olfactory portion of the mucous membrane lining the nasal fossa.
periodontal membrane
perivitelline membrane
the innermost of the three layers on the outside of the yolk in the hen egg.
placental membrane
the membrane that separates the fetal from the maternal blood in the placenta.
plasma membrane
the membrane that encloses a cell; it is composed of phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol and proteins. The primary structure is a lipid bilayer. Phospholipid molecules have an electrically charged 'head' that attracts water and a hydrocarbon 'tail' that repels water; they line up side by side in two opposing layers, with their heads on the inner or outer surface of the membrane and their tails in the core, from which water is excluded. The other lipids affect the structural properties of the membrane. Proteins embedded in the membrane transport specific molecules across the membrane, act as hormone receptors, or perform other functions.
membrane potential
of a cell is the voltage difference across the cell membrane resulting from the differential concentrations of sodium and potassium on either side of the membrane. The resting potential, for example in a nerve cell, is altered by the temporary opening of the sodium channels in the membrane during an action potential, allowing a redistribution of the ions.
membrane proteins
the large number of proteins attached to a cell membrane. They include integral proteins, called also intrinsic, which are embedded in the phospholipid bi-layer of the cell membrane, and peripheral proteins, called also extrinsic, because they are loosely bound and can readily be extracted without damage to the cell membrane.
pupillary membrane
a vascular membrane which occupies the pupil in the embryo stage, completely covering the anterior surface of the lens but subsequently disappears. See also persistent pupillary membrane.
Reissner's membrane
the thin anterior wall of the cochlear duct, separating it from the scala vestibuli.
Scarpa's membrane
tympanic membrane, secondary.
semipermeable membrane
one permitting passage through it of some but not all substances.
serosal membrane
see serous membrane (below).
serous membrane
the membrane lining the walls of the body cavities and enclosing the contained organs; it consists of mesothelium lying upon a connective tissue layer and it secretes a watery fluid.
shell membrane
the membrane on the outside of the soft contents of the hen egg and just inside the shell. It consists of two membranes close together, with an air cell in between.
synovial membrane
see synovial membrane.
membrane transport
transport of electrolytes across semipermeable membranes with the aid of a transporter.
unit membrane
the trilaminar structure of all cellular membranes (such as the plasma membrane, nuclear membranes, mitochondrial membranes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes) as they appear in electron micrographs. The biochemical structure is a lipid bilayer.
wing membrane
the membrane comprising the wing of the bat.
yolk membrane
the membrane investing the yolk of the hen egg; it includes (from the inside out) the perivitelline, the continuous and the extravitelline membranes.
References in periodicals archive ?
Peritoneal protein clearance and not peritoneal membrane transport status predicts survival in a contemporary cohort of peritoneal dialysis patients.
Janace, Cell Membrane Transport, Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 1975.
Quinn, "The Prediction of Facilitation Factors for Reaction on Augmented Membrane Transport," AIChE J.
The Nerve Impulse and Membrane Transport lessons also utilize the same instructional approaches to convey the processes occurring.
Superfluous ventricular contraction spikes and prolonged plateaus suggest that disturbed membrane transport leads to the failure of neurotransmitter release and (or) myocardial excitation in the neuromuscular system of the heart.
Part I: Cellular Neurochemistry and Neural Membranes Neuronal Cell Biology Cell Membrane Structures and Functions Membrane Transport Electrical Excitability and Ion Channels Lipids The Cytoskeleton of Neurons and Glia Intracellular Trafficking Axonal Transport Cell Adhesion Molecules Myelin Structure and Biochemistry Energy Metabolism of the Brain
Facilitated membrane transport will be mimicked by holographic optical tweezers providing full control over the translocation process.
It discusses types of porous membrane reactors, including ceramic, silica, carbon, zeolite, and dense metallic reactors like Pd or Pd-alloy, oxygen ion-conducting, fluid bed, microreactors, and proton-conducting ceramics, and for each, the membrane transport principles, fabrication, configuration and operation, and current and potential applications, as well as issues and obstacles to each membrane reaction process.
Among the 14 topics are calcium channels in the membrane transport of toxic metals by ionic mimicry in mammalian cells, heavy metals pollution associated with thermal energy processes, heavy metal toxicity to legumes, natural and synthetic materials for removing heavy metal and humic acid, and heavy metals and motor neuron disorders.
One common focus is the interaction of pesticides with cellular mechanisms involved in protein degradation, oxidative stress, membrane transport, and regulation of endogenous dopamine levels.
Petiolar application of NPA, an auxin membrane transport inhibitor, increases the concentration of endogenous auxin in the bean leaf blade distal to the site of application.

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