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Related to membrane transport: Membrane transport proteins
membrane transportThe active movement of proteins from the site of production in the cell to the site of storage or to the cell membrane for eventual release. Membrane transport requires:
(1) Translocation-competent membranes (e.g., endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomal membrane and the mitochondrial inner membrane); and
(2) Membrane-targeting signals to direct the molecules, often in the form of an NH2-terminal oligopeptide with peroxisomal target proteins.
The transported protein or preprotein has one of two basic structures: either a completely hydrophilic primary sequence or one which is hydrophilic at both the NH2 and COOH ends, separated in the middle by an apolar hydrophobic core.
membrane transportmovement of charged molecules into/out of the cell via specific cell membrane sites (receptors), e.g. process allowing ingress of local anaesthetic agents into nerve fibre
a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ.
a thin tissue barrier through which gases are exchanged between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries.
complement components C5-C9 which form in terminal stage of either of the complement pathways and lead to cell lysis.
the lower boundary of the scala media of the ear.
a thin layer of basement membrane between the outer layer of stratified epithelium and the substantia propria of the cornea.
the inner layer of the choroid, separating it from the pigmented layer of the retina.
a mechanism in the cell membrane of epithelial cells in the intestinal mucosa which facilitates the rapid transport of for example glucose, into the cell and thus into the bloodstream.
plasma membrane (below).
the middle of the three membranes on the outside of the yolk of the hen egg.
the membrane connecting the thyroid cartilage to the cricoid cartilage. It is extensive in the horse and surgical incision through it allows access to the interior of the larynx.
the posterior lining membrane of the cornea; it is a thin hyaline membrane between the substantia propria and the endothelial layer of the cornea.
tympanic membrane (below).
those that protect the embryo or fetus and provide for its nutrition, respiration and excretion; the yolk sac (umbilical vesicle), allantois, amnion, chorion, decidua and placenta.
the outermost of the three membranes on the outside of the yolk of the hen egg.
a membrane similar to the pseudomembrane; fibrinous exudates readily loosened from underlying tissue, as in croupous or pseudomembranous inflammation.
one of the perforated elastic sheets of the tunica intima and tunica media of arteries.
see fetal membranes. See also extraembryonic membranes (above).
the strong, fibrous support layer in a joint capsule.
see henle's membrane.
1. a membrane between the outer root sheath and inner fibrous layer of a hair follicle.
3. a homogeneous eosinophilic membrane lining alveolar ducts and alveoli, frequently found at necropsy in premature human infants. See also hyaline membrane disease.
a fibrous lamina connecting the under-surface of the tongue with the hyoid bone.
the membrane connecting the shaft of the fibula to the tibia.
one that constitutes the border of some tissue or structure.
the membrane covered with epithelium that lines many tubular organs of the body.
see membrana nictitans.
1. either of the membranes, inner and outer, comprising the nuclear envelope.
2. nuclear envelope.
the olfactory portion of the mucous membrane lining the nasal fossa.
the innermost of the three layers on the outside of the yolk in the hen egg.
the membrane that separates the fetal from the maternal blood in the placenta.
the membrane that encloses a cell; it is composed of phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol and proteins. The primary structure is a lipid bilayer. Phospholipid molecules have an electrically charged 'head' that attracts water and a hydrocarbon 'tail' that repels water; they line up side by side in two opposing layers, with their heads on the inner or outer surface of the membrane and their tails in the core, from which water is excluded. The other lipids affect the structural properties of the membrane. Proteins embedded in the membrane transport specific molecules across the membrane, act as hormone receptors, or perform other functions.
of a cell is the voltage difference across the cell membrane resulting from the differential concentrations of sodium and potassium on either side of the membrane. The resting potential, for example in a nerve cell, is altered by the temporary opening of the sodium channels in the membrane during an action potential, allowing a redistribution of the ions.
the large number of proteins attached to a cell membrane. They include integral proteins, called also intrinsic, which are embedded in the phospholipid bi-layer of the cell membrane, and peripheral proteins, called also extrinsic, because they are loosely bound and can readily be extracted without damage to the cell membrane.
a vascular membrane which occupies the pupil in the embryo stage, completely covering the anterior surface of the lens but subsequently disappears. See also persistent pupillary membrane.
the thin anterior wall of the cochlear duct, separating it from the scala vestibuli.
tympanic membrane, secondary.
one permitting passage through it of some but not all substances.
see serous membrane (below).
the membrane lining the walls of the body cavities and enclosing the contained organs; it consists of mesothelium lying upon a connective tissue layer and it secretes a watery fluid.
the membrane on the outside of the soft contents of the hen egg and just inside the shell. It consists of two membranes close together, with an air cell in between.
see synovial membrane.
transport of electrolytes across semipermeable membranes with the aid of a transporter.
the trilaminar structure of all cellular membranes (such as the plasma membrane, nuclear membranes, mitochondrial membranes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes) as they appear in electron micrographs. The biochemical structure is a lipid bilayer.
the membrane comprising the wing of the bat.
the membrane investing the yolk of the hen egg; it includes (from the inside out) the perivitelline, the continuous and the extravitelline membranes.