In cell membranes, sphingolipids are associated with sterols to form specialized plasma membrane microdomains
called lipid rafts that facilitate ligand-receptor interaction, cellular signal transduction, and membrane protein trafficking [23, 24].
Krautkramer et al., "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein modulates the lipid composition of virions and host cell membrane microdomains
," Retrovirology, vol.
However, I have discovered that bacteria organize many signaling pathways in membrane microdomains
similar to the eukaryotic lipid rafts.
The membrane lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-rich membrane microdomains
and indicate an important feature that may contribute to signalings through the plasma membrane.
Considering the documented effects on membrane microdomains
in these systems (Gil et al..
Studies of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains
(rafts) are of great interest for biomedical applications.
Psychosine accumulates in membrane microdomains
in the brain of Krabbe patients, disrupting the raft architecture.
Both of these lipids are possibly enriched in lipid rafts or membrane microdomains
distinct from sphingolipid-rich domains.
The archaeal cholesterol catabolism can deplete the lymphocytic cell membranes of cholesterol resulting in alteration of lymphocytic cell membrane microdomains
related receptors producing immune activation.
Lipid rafts and little caves: compartmentalized signalling in membrane microdomains
. Eur J Biochem 2002; 269 : 737-52.
Assembly of staphylococcal leukocidin into a pore-forming oligomer on detergent-resistant membrane microdomains
, lipid rafts, in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Background and Significance: Lipid rafts are cholesterol rich membrane microdomains
that bring innate immune receptors like Toll like receptor (TLR) together with signaling molecules like Src family tyrosine kinases to transmit the extracellular events into the cytoplasmic cascade of signaling proteins activation.