Melyan et al., "Evolution of melanopsin
photoreceptors: discovery and characterization of a new melanopsin
in nonmammalian vertebrates," PLoS Biology, vol.
Since corals express rhodopsins and melanopsins
(Anctil et al., 2007; Vize, 2009), which are classic visual and nonvisual photoreceptors that act via calcium second messengers in many marine invertebrates (Yarfitz and Hurley, 1994; Vize, 2009), this is more likely to be the mechanism responsible for sensing and responding to light in coral.
The left eye of each animal was intravitreally injected with different doses of immunotoxin melanopsin-SAP (2 [micro]l/eye) (Advanced Targeting Systems, San Diego, CA, USA), consisting of saporin conjugated to a melanopsin
"Until now, the role of retinal melanopsin
cells and how they contribute to the perception of the brightness of light have been unclear," said Katsunori Okajima, a professor at the Faculty of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University and one of the authors of the study.
In the new work, the Salk researchers used molecular tools to turn on production of melanopsin
in retinal cells in mice.
The evolution of irradiance detection: melanopsin
and the non-visual opsins.
Role of melanopsin
in circadian responses to light.
[8.] Gooley JJ, Lu J, Chou TC, Scammell TE, Saper CB (2001) Melanopsin
in cells of origin of the retinohypothalamic tract.
Carlson et al., "Induction of photosensitivity by heterologous expression of melanopsin
," Nature, vol.
retinal ganglion cell loss and circadian dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (review)," Molecular Medicine Reports, vol.
i wsp.: Measuring and using light in the melanopsin