The medial circumflex femoral artery traverses between the adductor magnus and the adductor longus muscles and enters the deep surface of the gracilis muscle approximately 6-10 cm inferior to the pubic tubercle [Figure 3].
The medial circumflex femoral artery is the dominant pedicle to the gracilis muscle.
Two to six arteries are needed to form the extraneural arterial chain of the sciatic nerve, which pass to it from neighboring arteries, perforating, popliteal artery, inferior gluteal, and medial circumflex
femoral at the certain level (Ugrenovic et al., 2013).
In addition, an arthroscopic approach to the peripheral compartment distal to the zona orbicularis increases the risk of injury to the nutrient vessels of the head of the femur, such as a branch of the medial circumflex
femoral artery [8, 9].
Perineoscrotal reconstruction using a medial circumflex
femoral artery perforator flap.
The muscular branches of the obturator nerve and the medial circumflex
femoral and obturator vessels ramify within and perforate these intermuscular fascial layers in order to supply the surrounding muscles.
Posterior thigh flap (PTF), initially described by Shintomi and Ohura in 1983, is a fasciocutaneous flap supplied by the vascular network of descending branch of inferior gluteal, medial circumflex
, and profunda femoris arteries.
Further, the inferior epigastric artery frequently arises indirectly from external iliac artery as from a common trunk with other arteries such as deep circumflex iliac artery, the obturator artery (Kawai et al., 2008 & Hussein et al., 2013) or with the obturator and medial circumflex
femoral arteries (Sanudo et al., 2011).
Trueta reported that LCPD was caused by vascular insufficiency of the lateral epiphyseal artery (the branch of the medial circumflex
femoral artery) .
This is thought to be due to external compression on the arterial supply to the sciatic nerve, which most commonly arises from the medial circumflex
femoral and inferior gluteal arteries [10-13].
In the femoral triangle it gave branches to the muscles in the floor of femoral triangle and anastomosed with the medial circumflex
A branch enters the trochanteric fossa to join the inferior gluteal artery and ascending branch of the medial circumflex
femoral artery while other branches run through gluteus minimus muscle to supply the hip joint (Standring).