A comparison of pre- and in-service preschool teachers'

mathematical anxiety and beliefs about mathematics for young children.

These theories were utilized by the researcher to establish the connections among

mathematical anxiety, the factors that caused it and the performance of the students in the classroom, particularly in the subject pre-calculus.

Trujillo (1999) used the revised

Mathematical Anxiety Rating Scale (R-MARS) to test the mathematics anxiety of a group of pre-service elementary teachers, and identified five of them who found to be "most mathematically anxious." The researcher then conducted an in-depth interview with the five participants in the study, to determine the major causes of their mathematics anxiety.

The course objective was to give basic knowledge in the area of mathematics to non-majors while shifting the

mathematical anxiety of non-math majors to a more positive view and appreciation towards a multidisciplinary mathematics.

Leigh Ann Beard (2003) conducted a study in which she examined the effects of an integrated math and children's literature instruction on mathematical achievement and

mathematical anxiety compared with students who received mathematics instruction without the contexts provided through children's literature.

McDonald says the Shirleybased side still need a couple more wins to end any

mathematical anxiety over their status in the Aspire Midland Alliance but he also suggests they need to balance the needs of now with the potential for future in the final 11 games.

Therefore, a proper prerequisite course that can build confidence against

mathematical anxiety and develop mathematical thinking could help alleviate these problems.

Beginning with mathematical content about which the teachers felt more secure in their understanding allowed us to alleviate

mathematical anxiety. This indirect approach established a foundation upon which we could develop mathematical discussions of more difficult, and perhaps new, content.

Moreover, although a large research tradition has developed around

mathematical anxiety and self-concept in many countries, less has been done to analyze cross-national differences.

The researchers gave the students the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, a questionnaire used since the '70s to assess

mathematical anxiety levels, said Patricia Perez-Tyteca, a mathematics professor at the university who was part of the research team.

According to the researchers,

mathematical anxiety appears through a series of symptoms "such as tension, nervousness, concern, worry, edginess, impatience, confusion, fear and mental block" when dealing with the subject of Mathematics.

Mathematical calculation ability and

mathematical anxiety of baccalaureate nursing students.