electron

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electron

 [e-lek´tron]
any of the negatively charged particles arranged in orbitals around the nucleus of an atom and determining all of the atom's physical and chemical properties except mass and radioactivity. Electrons flowing in a conductor constitute an electric current; when ejected from a radioactive substance, they are beta particles.ƒ

The number of electrons revolving around the nucleus of an atom is equal to its atomic number. An atom of oxygen, for instance, which has an atomic number of 8, has eight electrons in orbit around the nucleus in a manner similar to the planets revolving around the sun in our solar system.

Electrons greatly influence the behavior of an atom toward other atoms. The combination of various elements to form compounds is brought about by the losing or gaining of electrons; the process is sometimes called “sharing” of electrons. For example, the combination of the elements sodium and chlorine produce the compound sodium chloride (table salt). This is accomplished by the transfer of one electron from the outer electron shell of the sodium atom to the outer electron shell of the chlorine atom. This combining of elements by the loss or gain of electrons is called electrovalence.

e·lec·tron (β-),

(ē-lek'tron),
One of the negatively charged subatomic particles that orbit the positive nucleus, in one of several energy levels called shells; in mass they are estimated to be 1/1836.15 of a proton; when emitted from inside the nucleus of a radioactive substance, electrons are called β particles. A nucleus and its electrons constitute an atom.
See also: shell.
[electro- + -on]

e·lec·tron

(β-) (ĕ-lek'tron)
One of the negatively charged subatomic particles that are distributed about the positive nucleus and with it constitute the atom; in mass they are estimated to be 1/1836.15 of a proton; when emitted from inside the nucleus of a radioactive substance, electrons are called beta particles.
[electro- + -on]

Electron

One of the small particles that make up an atom. An electron has the same mass and amount of charge as a positron, but the electron has a negative charge.

e·lec·tron

(ĕ-lek'tron)
Negatively charged subatomic particles that orbit the positive nucleus, in one of several energy levels called shells. A nucleus and its electrons constitute an atom.
[electro- + -on]
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, the effective mass tensor ([m*.sub.nppar, ij]) value of low-dimensional electron systems can be calculated around the subband bottom [15]; the important point is the fact that the effective mass of electrons is larger by the factor of [(1 + 4[alpha]([E.sub.j](0) - [E.sub.C] + [beta][E.sub.ext])).sup.1/2] than that estimated assuming a parabolic band.
The renormalized mass of electrons [m.sub.R] can be represented as a physical mass [m.sub.phys] of electrons and is defined in a hot and dense medium as
where [V.sub.d] is the barrier height, [V.sub.g] is the gate voltage, N is the number of electrons entering the quantum dot, C is the total capacitance of the quantum dot, e is the electron charge, [E.sub.F] is the Fermi energy, m* is the effective mass of electrons with energy E, and [??][omega] is the photon energy of both infrared and ultraviolet electromagnetic field.