However, Markov models
, assuming current regional rates of grassland conversion to rowcrops, along with the small proportions of protected grasslands, suggest that continued loss of grasslands will reduce grassland land cover by 2106 to levels similar to those at eastern study sites, where nighthawks occur almost exclusively in developed areas with gravel rooftops.
An n state of Markov model
leads to a system of n coupled differential equations.
Our work is also different from previous research on the behavior of PU because we use a two-state Markov model
to reduce the total cost of false alarm and missed detection instead of increasing system throughputs.
A number of automatic instruments have been developed, most frequently based on HMMs (Hidden Markov Models
du Preez, "Efficient training of high-order hidden Markov models
using first-order representations," Computer Speech and Language, vol.
Clements, "Sentence-level subjectivity detection using neuro-fuzzy and hidden markov models
," in Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis in (NAACLHLT '13), pp.
Fridman, "Distinguishing patterns in drivers' visual attention allocation using Hidden Markov Models
," Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol.
This paper uses a two-regime model to understand more about crash risk by assessing uncovered interest parity (UIP) deviations in a range of CEE countries and by using a hidden Markov model
(HMM) to divide the deviations into two categories: those where the high-yield currency appreciates against the lower interest rate unit (adding a capital gain to the funding premium) and those where the high-yield currency falls much more than would be anticipated by UIP.
Whereas Markov regime switching models can be considered as generalization of Hidden Markov models
, the method proposed in this paper with two state regimes would compose a more naturalistic model.
When comparing possible ways, Markov models
proved to be especially suitable.
Probabilistic models include Markov models
, survival analysis, and Bayesian approach.