The distance between the vertical line drawn downward from the caudal margin of mandible (E) and the vertical line drawn from the mandibular foramina
downwards (G) was (F) 4.45[+ or -]0.03 cm, while same distance was observed to be 1.85[+ or -]0.011 cm in blackbuck (Choudhary and Singh, 2015a) and 7.04[+ or -]0.05 cm in Indian wild pig (Choudhary et al., 2017).
Many studies on accessory mandibular foramina
and related bony canals have been found in the literature.
Double mandibular foramina
and canal: report a case with interactive CT-based planning software.
1 and 2) and (Table I) and measurements for locating the exact position of both the mental and mandibular foramina (Fig.
Position of the mental and the mandibular foramina. Eight distances four for mental and four for mandibular foramina were measured in each mandible (Figs.
The descriptive statistics of all parameters, the six linear and one angular measurements that were related to the mandibles' body and ramus; and the eight linear measurement that were related to the position of the mental and mandibular foramina, showed significant differences existed between sexes (p<0.05) in all measurements of the body and ramus, and in four out of eight measurements (D2, D4, D6, D8) that were related to the position of the mental and mandibular foramena (Table IV).
The other two parameters that were identified by the DF analysis were related to the position of the mental and mandibular foramina, namely, (D4), the measured distance from the center of the mental foramen to the posterior margin of the mandibular ramus, and (D8), the measured distance between the center of mandibular foramen and the inferior edge of the mandible, with an 'F-statistics' value and classification accuracy of 31.7 and 70.2 % respectively for the first and 26.9 and 73.8 % for the second.
This type of mandible image is very effective in identifying the location of such mandibular landmarks as the canal and both mental and mandibular foramina
, as well as the course and branches of inferior alveolar nerves and vessels.
The term "Accessory Mandibular Foramina" (Freire et al.; Samanta & Kharb) was used to refer to the foramina studied by us or to a foramina adjacent to the lingual foramen (Przstanska & Bruska, 2010, 2012).
Accessory mandibular foramina: histological and immunohistochemical studies of their contents.
Morphometric analysis of mandibular foramen and incidence of accessory mandibular foramina in adult human mandibles of an indian population.
(2007) who found a double mandibular canals; Auluck & Pai (2005) who reported a case of mandibular trifid canal, unilateral, and Clays & Wackens (2005) who described a case of two mandibular canals, unilateral rights, starting from the distinct mandibular foramina
and ending in separate foramina.