Of these, nine significantly and positively influence managerial performance: Management by objectives
, Carrier plan, TQM, SWOT analysis, Meeting, Brainstorming, Lean Six Sigma, Diagnostic analysis and Business plan, tree have a significant influence but in the negative sense, while six of the managerial tools analyzed have no significant influence on health organizations managerial performances.
The plot indicates a hierarchy of theories showing scientific management, management by objectives
, equity theory, and expectancy theory to be in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th place, respectively.
Hoshin Kanri strategic planning leads to the identification of a few "Vital Goals" from the Management by Objectives
. In this case, Hoshin Kanri was introduced as an annual strategic planning tool that uses the objectives.
In its briefest form the system of management by objective
contains the following basic elements.
The only principle that can do this is management by objectives
If you have been around for a while, you will remember some or all of these: management by objectives
; theory X/theory Y/theory Z; total quality management; quality circles; knowledge management; business process reengineering; balanced scorecard; 360-degree reviews; integrated product teams; cross functional working groups; or any of a dozen others.
The modern principles of management by objectives
are being adapted to safety, in order to overcome some of the traditional failings.
This article introduces five management fads that were very popular in the second half of the 1900s, including: management by objectives
(MBO), sensitivity training, quality circles, total quality management (TQM) and self-managed teams.
Discouraged by the lack of an increase in productivity after incorporating "Management by Objectives
" techniques in city departments, Dayton tried a different approach called "Management by Unreasonable Objectives" (MBOU).
We adopted the latest "business models." In Search of Excellence, Management by Objectives
, Quality Circles, Team Management, Total Quality Management, and Continuous Quality Improvement were seen as possible paths out of the dilemma facing health care organizations.
Organizational effectiveness, zero defects, management by objectives
, total quality management, and other techniques have held sway in the Department of Defense at various times and places.
Peter Drucker, the "father of modern management," describes the management by objectives
method in which managers establish overall goals and define individual areas of responsibility in terms of expected results (1954, The Practice of Management, Harper& Row).