Mallory-Weiss tear


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Mal·lo·ry-Weiss syn·drome

(mal'ŏ-rē wīs),
upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage resulting from a laceration in the mucosa at the gastroesophageal junction, usually induced by retching or vomiting.

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Upper GI bleeding linked to longitudinal mucosal lacerations at the oesophagogastric junction or gastric cardia, which accounts for 5–15% of upper GI bleeds. While the original report by Mallory and Weiss in 1929 involved alcoholics with persistent retching and vomiting, the syndrome may follow any event that provokes a sudden rise in intragastric pressure or gastric prolapse into the oesophagus.

Clinical findings
The classic presentation is vomiting, retching or violent coughing, usually (85%) accompanied by haematemesis.
 
Risk factors
Hiatal hernia (35–100% of patients); alcohol use is reported in 40–75%, aspirin in 30%.

Management
Bleeding stops spontaneously in 80–90% of patients; most require symptomatic relief; active management strategies include bipolar electrocoagulation by endoscopy, injection therapy, transcatheter embolisation, and intra-arterial vasopressin infusion.

Mallory-Weiss tear

Mallory-Weiss lesion Emergency medicine A laceration of the esophagogastric junction, which accounts for 5–15% of upper GI bleeding; the classic scenario is vomiting, retching, or violent coughing in an alcoholic Pt Management Bleeding stops spontaneously in 80–90% of Pts; most require symptomatic relief; active management strategies include bipolar electrocoagulation by endoscopy, injection therapy, transcatheter embolization, and intra-arterial vasopressin infusion. Cf Esophageal varices.

Mal·lo·ry-Weiss le·sion

(mal'ŏr-ē wīs lē'zhŭn)
Laceration of the gastric cardia, as seen in the Mallory-Weiss syndrome.
Synonym(s): Mallory-Weiss tear.

Mallory,

George Kenneth, U.S. pathologist, 1900–.
Mallory syndrome - gastroesophageal junction mucosal laceration.
Mallory-Weiss lesion - laceration of the gastric cardia, as seen in the Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Synonym(s): Mallory-Weiss tear
Mallory-Weiss syndrome - laceration of the lower end of the esophagus, associated with bleeding, caused usually by severe retching and vomiting.
Mallory-Weiss tear - Synonym(s): Mallory-Weiss lesion

Weiss,

Soma, U.S. physician, 1898-1942.
Charcot-Weiss-Baker syndrome - see under Charcot
Mallory-Weiss lesion - see under Mallory, George Kenneth
Mallory-Weiss syndrome - see under Mallory, George Kenneth
Mallory-Weiss tear - Synonym(s): Mallory-Weiss lesion
References in periodicals archive ?
We observed that Mallory-Weiss tear was commonly associated with NSAIDs instead of alcohol, and repeat endoscopy was more common in portal hypertension.
We observed that Mallory-Weiss tear has a particular association with NSAIDs.
Mallory-Weiss tear: predisposing factors and predictors of a complicated course.
Moon, "Severe Mallory-Weiss tear after endoscopy treated by endoscopic band ligation," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol.
Caption: FIGURE 2: An iatrogenic Mallory-Weiss tear was shown during endoscopic examination and hemostasis using a hemoclip.
Distributions of the numbers of previous upper endoscopies performed according to bleeding control in iatrogenic Mallory-Weiss tear cases.
Lee, "Retrospective analysis of iatrogenic Mallory-Weiss tears occurring during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy," Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol.
Wormsley, "Mallory-Weiss tears occurring during endoscopy: a report of seven cases," Endoscopy, vol.
A variety of insults can lead to esophageal hemorrhage including esophagitis with ulceration, esophageal varices, tumor and Mallory-Weiss tears. Esophageal varices and Mallory-Weiss tears are the two most common disorders leading to bleeding of esophageal origin.