This study explored the relationships between multidimensional perfectionism (adaptive and maladaptive
), shame (characterological, behavioral, and bodily), and trichotillomania (TTM) symptom severity in a nonclinical sample of 284 college students and a clinical sample of 125 individuals with TTM.
It was hypothesised that the three perfectionism scales (FMPS, HMPS and APS-R) converge into the same three dimensions (adaptive, maladaptive
and organisation/order) and maladaptive
perfectionism would correlate positively with negative outcomes while adaptive perfectionism would correlate positively with positive outcomes.
A competent and versatile communicator is able to remain on the adaptive wheel, can often draw the subject away from maladaptive
behaviors during the session, and can move their own behavior posture around the wheel to maintain the optimum rapport during the session.
eating behaviors were measured using The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) .
Subscales include measures of adaptive cognitive empathy (PT; Perspective Taking), adaptive affective empathy (EC; Empathic Concern), maladaptive
cognitive empathy (FS; Fantasy Scale), and maladaptive
affective empathy (ED; Emotional Distress).
Attitude towards humor and negation to use humor (maladaptive
humor) positively predicted perceived stress, which supported our first hypothesis (see Table 3).
Bernstein (47) proposed a cognitive model of personality disorders in patients with histories of emotional abuse or neglect based on Young's notion of maladaptive
schemas, evaluating the relationship between early adverse experiences and later psychopathology Lumley and Harkness (48) detected that sexual and physical abuse experienced in childhood may result in the development of schemas related to the 'hazard' theme (weakness against threats and a sense of insecurity), whereas childhood neglect may result in the development of schemas related to 'loss' and 'insignificance' themes (emotional deprivation and social isolation).
Conclusion: Adaptive stress-coping strategies were more frequently used among a sample of residents in Saudi Arabia than maladaptive
stress-coping strategies, with higher use of religion in coping than previously reported.
spirituality measured at baseline was correlated with worse PTSD symptomatology at discharge.
Keywords:Self-differentiation, Preliminary maladaptive
schema, Attachment styles, Quality of life.
Young make an early maladaptive
schemas questionnaire to measure the 18-fold structure that has 75 questions in the first and second edition and has 90 questions in the third edition of it.