macular hole


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macular hole

An ocular change caused by ageing, diabetes and degeneration resulting in shrinkage of the vitreous over the fovea, creating traction on the fovea and eventually a macular defect. In early stages, an epiretinal membrane compromises visual acuity, leading over time to metamorphopsia (lines on an Amsler grid appear wavy or crooked) and increasingly severe loss of vision.

Patients see anything from a fine, glistening membrane overlying the macula (cellophane maculopathy), to a thickened, whitish tissue that obscures underlying blood vessels. As it progresses, traction by the vitreous causes a puckering that appears as retinal folds radiating from the macula when viewed by fundoscopy.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

macular hole

A tear or discontinuity in the central portion of the retina, resulting in central visual loss.
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners

macular hole

A condition in which there is a partial or full thickness absence of the retina in the macular area. It may occur as a result of trauma, degeneration, old age, preretinal macular fibrosis or pathological myopia. It appears ophthalmoscopically as a round or oval, well defined, reddish spot at the macula. There is metamorphopsia, loss of visual acuity and a central scotoma. An operculum of retinal tissue may overlie the hole. The vitreous in front of the hole eventually condenses and separates from the retina. In partial macular hole a layer of photoreceptors may still be attached to the retinal pigment epithelium (lamellar hole), as in cystoid macular oedema. Treatment usually consists of reattaching the retina, if detached, and possibly vitrectomy. See preretinal macular fibrosis; confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope; retinal break; solar retinopathy; optical coherence tomography.
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann
References in periodicals archive ?
Mean macular hole diameters were 333.800 and 403.625, P = 0.4263, and mean macular hole basal diameters were 665.40 and 873.11 microns, P = 0.4448.
Also Nd:YAG laser complications include macular hole, retinal detachment, and epiretinal membrane formation [4-8].
To explore the presentation of high myopia without complications or myopic maculopathy, lacquer cracks, and posterior staphyloma that can change the choroidal morphology, any instances of amblyopia, eyes with a history of retinal detachment, scleral buckling, pars plana vitrectomy, photodynamic therapy, antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy, macular hole, epiretinal membrane, vitreomacular traction syndrome, foveoschisis, diabetes, any type of glaucoma, or posterior uveitis were excluded.
Yamamoto, "Comparison of vitrectomy with brilliant blue G or indocyanine green on retinal microstructure and function of eyes with macular hole," Ophthalmology, vol.
The global retinal surgery devices market segmentation is based on equipment (vitrectomy packs, vitrectomy machines, retinal laser equipment, microscopic illumination equipment, surgical instruments, retinal tamponades, sclera buckle), applications (diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, epiretinal membrane, macular hole, eye infections and eye injuries).
In Sutureless 20G group, there were 3 cases of Traumatic VH, 4 cases of Diabetic Vitreous hemorrhage, 4 cases of Rhegmatogenous RD, 5 cases of Diabetic Tractional RD, 3 cases of Full thickness Macular hole, 1 case of Endophthalmitis.
Reappraisal of biomicroscopic classification of stages of development of a macular hole. Am J Ophthalmol.
It is estimated that the risk of developing a macular hole in the fellow eye is less than 2% if posterior vitreous detachment is present, approximately 15% if the posterior vitreous is attached, and as high as 50% should an impending hole be found in the fellow eye [9].
Vingerling, and P Sullivan, "Imaging of a traumatic macular hole with spontaneous closure," Retina, vol.
Objective: To assess visual and anatomical outcome of full thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery with ILM peeling using brilliant blue G dye.
Bandello presents 'Cost-effectiveness of ocriplasmin for the treatment of vitreomacular traction with or without full-thickness macular hole in Italy'
KEYWORDS: Idiopathic macular hole, Internal limiting membrane, Pars plana vitrectomy.