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(peg-apt-i-nib) ,


(trade name)


Therapeutic: ocular agents
Pharmacologic: vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists
Pregnancy Category: B


Neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration.


Acts as an antagonist of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF may be responsible for the formation of incompetent, leaky blood vessels associated with macular degeneration.

Therapeutic effects

Decreased rate of loss of visual acuity.


Absorption: Slowly absorbed into systemic circulation after intravitreous administration.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Metabolized by exo- and endonucleases.
Half-life: 10 days (plasma).

Time/action profile

Intravitrealunknownunknown6 wk


Contraindicated in: Ocular/periocular infections.
Use Cautiously in: Obstetric: Use only if maternal benefit outweighs fetal risk; Lactation / Pediatric: Safety not established.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • cataract
  • blurred vision
  • conjunctival bleeding
  • irritation/pain
  • ↑ intraocular pressure
  • ocular inflammation
  • infection (rare)
  • retinal detachment (rare)
  • traumatic cataract formation (rare)


  • Anaphylaxis
  • angioedema


Drug-Drug interaction

None known.


Intravitreal (Adults) 0.3 mg every 6 wk.


Solution for intraviteous injection: 0.3 mg/mL in 1-mL single use glass syringes

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess eye for signs of infection frequently during week following injection.
  • Check perfusion of optic nerve head immediately after injection, use tonometry to measure intraocular pressure within 30 min following the injection, and biomicroscopy between 2 and 7 days following injection. Increases in intraocular pressure have been seen within 30 min of injection.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Disturbed sensory perception (Indications)


  • Do not administer solutions that are discolored or contain particulate matter. Attach threaded plastic threader rod to the rubber stopper inside barrel of syringe. Do not pull back on plunger.
    • Adequate analgesia and a broad-spectrum antibiotic should be given prior to injection.
  • Intravitreal: For ophthalmic intravitreal injection only.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Advise patient to notify ophthalmologist immediately if eye becomes red, sensitive to light, painful, or develops a change in vision.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Slowing of vision loss.


a miscellaneous ophthalmic agent that binds to vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis.
indications This drug is used in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. It may be used alone or with photodynamic therapy.
contraindications Ocular or periocular infections and known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibit its use.
adverse effects Adverse effects of this drug include retinal detachment and traumatic cataract. Common side effects include anterior chamber inflammation, blurred vision, conjunctival hemorrhage, corneal edema, cataract, eye discharge, eye pain, increased intraocular pressure, punctuate keratitis, reduced visual acuity, vitreous floaters, vitreous opacities, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and photophobia.


An anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent that has been found helpful in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. A brand name is Macugen.
References in periodicals archive ?
As it is of much lower cost than either Lucentis and Macugen (FDA approved anti-VEGF), it is being widely used specially in our setup as our patients are unable to afford the other expensive anti VEGF agents.
Several anti-VEGF are already in use such as Lucentis, Macugen, Eylea and Avastin, and many more are in clinical trials against common eye disorders such as wet macular degeneration.
Eyetech currently markets Macugen in the US, the first anti-VEGF inhibitor approved for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Presently, Eyetech is marketing Macugen, an inhibitor used for treating wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in the US.
Free prescriptions of an alternative drug Macugen are available in Scotland.
The guidance rejects another drug, Macugen (pegaptanib), as not cost-effective.
The guidance rejects another drug - Macugen (pegaptanib) - as not cost-effective.
But it will reject another drug - Macugen - as not cost-effective.
RETIRED anaethetist Dr Ken Vanner was one of the first people to receive the sight-saving drug Macugen on the NHS.
Sight-saving drugs Lucentis and Macugen have been licensed for the treatment of AMD, but a restrictive funding policy adopted by many PCTs has meant that only a small minority of patients have qualified for treatment.
For example, age-related macular degeneration is now treated with new medications, including macugen and lucentis; and intraocular infections are primarily treated with intravitreal medications.
Only those patients who had already gone blind in one eye would be eligible for anti-VEGF drugs Macugen and Lucentis.