Shapiro, "Requirement for macrophage elastase for cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice," Science, vol.
Lena et al., "Increase in macrophage elastase (MMP-12) in lungs from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease," Inflammation Research, vol.
The efficacy of MMP inhibitors is highly variable, more efficient in nude mice models and less efficient in case of numerous tumor associated macrophages, possible as a property of macrophage elastase. Macrophage elastase is exclusively expressed in host macrophages, as demonstrated in human breast cancer .
Consequently, macrophage elastase prevents metastatic growth, while other MMPs are tumoral promoters.
It can degrade a variety of substrates, including gelatin, collagens type IV, V, XIV, a2-macroglobulin, elastin, vitronectin, and proteoglycans.1,2,6,7 MMP-12 (macrophage elastase
) is involved in smoke-induced emphysema, tumor and other diseases.
The findings--which are consistent with laboratory evidence that smoking-induced activation of vaginal macrophage elastase
may play a role in organ prolapse--suggest that smoking is a modifiable risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse.
The findings, which are consistent with laboratory data showing that smoking-induced activation of vaginal macrophage elastase
may contribute to the pathogenesis of organ prolapse, suggest that smoking is a modifiable risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse.
Shapiro, "Macrophage elastase
kills bacteria within murine macrophages," Nature, vol.