Some arenaviruses, such as Lassa and Machupo
viruses, are associated with secondary person-to-person (direct contact with virus-contaminated blood or other excretions) and nosocomial transmission (including indirect transmission via contaminated medical equipment).
Isolation of Machupo
virus from wild rodent Calomys callosus.
OCEV, Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus; AMAV, Amapari virus strain BeAn 70563; CHPV, Chapare virus, 200001071; CPXV, Cupixi virus, BeAn 119303; GTOV, Guanarito virus, INH-95551; JUNV, Junin virus, XJ13; MACV, Machupo
virus, Carvallo; SABV, Sabia virus, SPH 114202; TCRV, Tacaribe virus, TRVL 11573.
Notably, medical care has been safely rendered by using conventional barrier precautions alone to persons infected with VHF viruses, including Ebola virus (5,18), Marburg virus (19,20), Lassa fever virus (27), Machupo
virus (11), Sabia virus (28), and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (21).
However, it was not until 1963 that the etiologic agent, Machupo
virus, was isolated from the spleen of a patient who died from this disease (1).
These diseases include Lassa hemorrhagic fever in West Africa, Junin hemorrhagic fever in Argentina, Machupo
and Chapare hemorrhagic fevers in Bolivia, Guanarito hemorrhagic fever in Venezuela, and Sabia hemorrhagic fever in Brazil.
Louis encephalitis virus, Rocio virus, Ilheus virus, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, Mayaro virus, Trocara virus, Oropouche virus, Caraparu virus, Murtucu virus, Guaroa virus, hantavirus, Machupo
virus, and Tacaribe virus; after the cardiovirus isolation, EMCV antibody also was used.
Eight persons (5 evaluated for exposure to Lassa virus, 2 for Machupo
virus, and 1 for Junin virus) received immune plasma (prepared from recovered patients in virus-endemic areas); 1 patient potentially exposed to Lassa virus also received intravenous ribavirin.
The South American species include Guanarito virus (GTOV), Junin virus (JUNV), Machupo
virus (MACV), and Sabia virus (SABV).
natalensis is the only host of Lassa virus, natural nidality may occur in a similar fashion as that described for Bolivian hemorrhagic fever caused by Machupo