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Some arenaviruses, such as Lassa and Machupo viruses, are associated with secondary person-to-person (direct contact with virus-contaminated blood or other excretions) and nosocomial transmission (including indirect transmission via contaminated medical equipment).
Rodents Argentine haemorraghic fever, bubonic plague, Ebola, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lassa fever, leptosporosis, Machupo, Marburg, monkeypox
OCEV, Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus; AMAV, Amapari virus strain BeAn 70563; CHPV, Chapare virus, 200001071; CPXV, Cupixi virus, BeAn 119303; GTOV, Guanarito virus, INH-95551; JUNV, Junin virus, XJ13; MACV, Machupo virus, Carvallo; SABV, Sabia virus, SPH 114202; TCRV, Tacaribe virus, TRVL 11573.
Isolation of Machupo virus from wild rodent Calomys callosus.
Infections caused by laboratory exposure to hemorrhagic fever viruses * Virus Incident Ebola Fingerstick while manipulating infected guinea pig tissue, 1977 (5); percutaneous exposure to blood from a Zaire Ebola virus-infected rodent, 2004 (7) Marburg 3 laboratory acquired infections since the mid-1980s; 1 death occurred in Russia; no details available (8) Crimean-Congo 8 cases before 1980 compiled by SALS; no details hemorrhagic fever available (9) Lassa 1 case reported in 1970 with limited details provided (10) Junin 21 cases before 1980 compiled by SALS; no details available (9) Machupo 1 person exposed to aerosolized blood from a broken test tube (11) * SALS, Subcommittee on Arbovirus Laboratory Safety.
Because physicians suspected BHF, patients received supportive therapy, including intravenous hydration, corticoids, antipyretic drugs, antimicrobial drugs, and blood transfusions from donors who had survived Machupo virus infection.
These diseases include Lassa hemorrhagic fever in West Africa, Junin hemorrhagic fever in Argentina, Machupo and Chapare hemorrhagic fevers in Bolivia, Guanarito hemorrhagic fever in Venezuela, and Sabia hemorrhagic fever in Brazil.
Louis encephalitis virus, Rocio virus, Ilheus virus, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, Mayaro virus, Trocara virus, Oropouche virus, Caraparu virus, Murtucu virus, Guaroa virus, hantavirus, Machupo virus, and Tacaribe virus; after the cardiovirus isolation, EMCV antibody also was used.
Eight persons (5 evaluated for exposure to Lassa virus, 2 for Machupo virus, and 1 for Junin virus) received immune plasma (prepared from recovered patients in virus-endemic areas); 1 patient potentially exposed to Lassa virus also received intravenous ribavirin.
The South American species include Guanarito virus (GTOV), Junin virus (JUNV), Machupo virus (MACV), and Sabia virus (SABV).
natalensis is the only host of Lassa virus, natural nidality may occur in a similar fashion as that described for Bolivian hemorrhagic fever caused by Machupo virus.