MyoD, myoblast determination protein; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; PAX7, paired box 7; Myf5, myogenic factor 5; MyoG
, myogenin; FHL1, four and a half LIM domains 1; NFATcl, nuclear factor of activated T cells 1; D.W, distilled water.
However since in the variables of MyoG
and NCAM, the variance averages were heterogeneous, non-parametric tests were used afterwards.
Upon reporter proteins terminal differentiation, (luciferase and GFP), MyoG
, desmin, skeletal human cell-specific muscle actin, and myosin nuclei, and laminin- (MHC) were identified.
Q-PCR results showed that the mRNA levels of MyoG
, MyoD, and Myf5 were significantly upregulated in FGF21 overexpression cells (P < 0.05).
The MyoG-EGFP construct encoded both MyoG
and enhanced green fluorescent protein.
Finally, IGFBP-6 treatment increased the levels of muscle-specific markers, MyoD, MyoG
, and MHC, at the earlier time points with a decline over time in the prolonged presence of increased extracellular IGFBP-6 compared to unsupplemented muscle differentiation conditions (Figures 5(e), 5(f), and 5(g)).
Interestingly, we found that there were similar expression patterns between miR-127-3p and three myogenic marker genes including MyoD, MyoG
, and Mef2c.
After JMJD3 and MYOD1 overexpression in hESCs, the MYOG
and MEF2C promoters are enriched in active epigenetic marks--H3K4me3 and H3K27 acetylation.
To detect myosin heavy chain (MYH), myogenic differentiation (MyoD), and myogenin (Myog
), cells were blocked with 1% bovine serum albumin and incubated with monoclonal anti-MYH (B-5), anti-MyoD (E-1), or anti-Myog (M-225) antibody at 4[degrees]C overnight (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA).
Finally, IGF-1 treatment decreased the levels of muscle-specific differentiation marker, MyoD, at day 14 (Figure 1(e)), but did not change MyoG
and MHC levels (Figures 1(f) and 1(g)), compared to PMSCs cultured under unsupplemented muscle differentiation conditions.
In vertebrate embryos, skeletal muscles of the trunk and limbs are derived from the somites, from the dermomyotome which gives rise to myogenic progenitor cells that are directed into the skeletal muscle programme by four myogenic bHLH transcription factors, Myf5, Myod1, Mrf4, and Myogenin (Myog
Four myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), products of myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation (MYOD), myogenin (MYOG
), and myogenic regulatory factor 4 (MRF4) genes, are sequentially expressed during myogenesis where MYOD is required for inducing differentiation and formation of muscle fibers (Rehfeldt et al., 2011).