monosodium glutamate

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monosodium glutamate

 [mon″o-so´de-um]
a salt of glutamic acid, used as a pharmaceutic necessity, and also used to enhance the flavor of foods. See also Chinese restaurant syndrome.

mon·o·so·di·um glu·ta·mate (MSG),

(mon'ō-sō'dē-ŭm glū'tă-māt),
The monosodium salt of the naturally occurring l form of glutamic acid; used as a flavor enhancer that is a cause or contributing factor to colloquially named "Chinese restaurant" syndrome; also used intravenously as an adjunct in treatment of encephalopathies associated with hepatic disease.

MSG

A flavour-enhancing amino acid used in processed, packaged and fast foods, which is an excitatory neurotransmitter and neurotoxin. Other sources with up to 40% MSG include autolysed yeast, calcium caseinate, sodium caseinate, and hydrolysed and texturised proteins.
 
Toxicity
Headaches, heart palpitations, skin flushing, tightness of the chest. MSG may cause convulsions when injected into the peritoneal cavity of experimental animals, stimulating neurons until they die, an effect that has been implicated in brain damage in strokes, hypoglycaemia, trauma, seizures, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s diseases and Guam-type amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; domoic aoid, a potent glutamate analogue, may cause toxic poisoning in mussel eaters, possibly causing an Alzheimer’s-like disease.

mon·o·so·di·um glu·ta·mate

(MSG) (mon'ō-sō'dē-ŭm glū'tă-māt)
The monosodium salt of the naturally occurring l form of glutamic acid; used as a flavor enhancer that is a cause or contributing factor to colloquially named "Chinese restaurant" syndrome; also used intravenously as an adjunct in treatment of encephalopathies associated with hepatic disease.

monosodium glutamate

The sodium salt of glutamic acid produced by acids or enzyme action on vegetable protein such as wheat gluten or soya bean. Monosodium glutamate is used as a culinary seasoning and flavouring agent and is believed to be responsible for the CHINESE RESTAURANT SYNDROME. Also known as Ajinomoto, Vetsin, Chinese seasoning, Accent or Zest.

mon·o·so·di·um glu·ta·mate

(MSG) (mon'ō-sō'dē-ŭm glū'tă-māt)
Monosodium salt of naturally occurring levorotatory form of glutamic acid; used as a flavor enhancer that is a cause or contributing factor to the colloquially named "Chinese restaurant" syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
At stimulatory glucose concentrations, the insulin release was significantly higher in MSG rat islets compared to CTL rat islets (P<0.001 and P<0.01, for 11.1 and 16.7 mM glucose, respectively; Figure 3A).
When the islets were incubated in the presence of 11.1 mM glucose plus 100 mM Cch, an M3 receptor agonist (6), MSG rat islets did not present an increase in insulin release (Figure 3B).
However, MSG rat islets did not increase insulin secretion in response to the potentiating agent, Cch (Figure 3B).
Regarding the lipidic metabolism in MSG rats, although there are some discrepancies among our data on unmodified peripheral TG concentrations, it must be mentioned that other researchers found enhanced basal TG levels where they have taken those samples at 8 or more hours after food was withdrawn (fasting condition) [40, 41].
Moreover, LPS treatment in MSG rats enhances also the secretion of immune system-derived cytokines and pancreatic insulin, and as a counterregulatory signal, glucagon; thus, the ratio of peripheral insulin: glucagon concentrations remains similar to that displayed by LPS-injected normal rats [27].
Regarding the adipoinsular axis response to LPS, it is well known that in normal rats this stimulus enhances the secretion of both leptin [29] and insulin [50], and we previously found that in MSG rats such a response is clearly exacerbated [27].
In conclusion, our study demonstrates that many of the host's defense mechanisms are deeply disturbed in MSG rats and are of relevance, so that a very low oral dose of metformin during one month is able to ameliorate this rat phenotype.
Indeed, MSG rats displayed several features characteristic of the human Cushing's and metabolic syndrome phenotypes, including a decreased liver weight, high tissue inflammation, and local metabolism highly displaced to an increase in lipid production.
Caption: Figure 1: Liver mRNA levels of Illb, Tnfa, and Pai-1 (panels (a), (b), and (c), resp.) in control (white bars) and MSG rats (black bars).
Caption: Figure 4: Liver FK activity (panel (a)), mRNA levels of Srebp1c (panel (b)), Fas (panel (c)), and Gpat (panel (d)) in control (white bars) and MSG rats (black bars).