S100A9

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S100A9

A gene on chromosome 1q21 that encodes a member of the S100 family of proteins, which contain 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs and as a group regulate cell cycle progression and differentiation and other cellular processes. S100A9 has antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi and provides resistance to invasion by pathogenic bacteria, and it upregulates transcription of genes under the control of NF-kappa-B; it is linked to the endotoxic shock response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. S100A9 promotes tubulin polymerisation and macrophage and granulocyte migration and infiltration into wound sites; it is a pro-inflammatory mediator and upregulates IL8 release and cell surface expression of ICAM1. Extracellular S100A9 (calprotectin) binds to target cells and promotes apoptosis.
 
Molecular pathology
Altered expression of S100A9 is linked to cystic fibrosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
S100A8 and S100A9, which are also known as myeloid related proteins (MRP) 8 and MRP14 or calprotectin, are related to the danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) and show typically proinflammatory activities in many mouse models of inflammation [10-13].
Abbreviations SEM: Scanning electron microscopy MPO: Myeloperoxidase Lf: Lactoferrin NGAL: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin S100A8, S100A9: The S100 calcium-binding proteins, known also as calgranulins A and B or myeloid-related proteins MRP8 and MRP14 MMP-9: Matrix metalloproteinase 9 or gelatinase B, 92 kD MMP-8: Matrix metalloproteinase 8 TIMPs: Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases E2: 17[beta]-Estradiol SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Hartmann et al., "S100A12 is expressed exclusively by granulocytes and acts independently from MRP8 and MRP14," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Yamazaki, "Implication of extracellular zinc exclusion by recombinant human calprotectin (MRP8 and MRP14) from target cells in its apoptosis-inducing activity," Mediators of Inflammation, vol.
Calprotectin, also known as calgranulin, is a heterodimer of two anionic peptides MRP8 and MRP14 [78].
These proteins include (i) calcium-binding protein MRP14 implicated in several types of cancer; (ii) CD59 overexpressed on tumour cells that enables them to escape from complement-dependent and antibody-mediated immune responses; (iii) Profilin 1, a protein involved in several signaling pathways with cytoplasmic and nuclear ligands, generally secreted into tumour microenvironments during the early progressive stage of tumorigenesis; and (iv) catalase, a member of the enzymatic antioxidative system, whose level is elevated in many human tumours and involved in carcinogenesis and tumour progression (109).
Fales (National Institutes of Health), contributing to an article on the phosphorylation site analysis of MRP14 purified from granulocytes, commenting on proteome analysis, and discussing the analysis of single cells and molecules.
Immunohistochemical distribution and serum levels of the [Ca.sup.2+]-binding proteins MRP8, MRP14 and their heterodimeric form MRP8/14 in Crohn's disease.
reported in a ROC curve analysis that a panel consisting of 5 proteins (M2BP, MRP14, CD59, catalase, and profilin) had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 83% in the diagnosis of the OSCC via LC-MS/MS [155].
Abbreviations SEM: Scanning electron microscopy TEM: Transmission electron microscopy MPO: Myeloperoxidase Lf: Lactoferrin NGAL: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin GAPDH: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase S100A8, S100A9: The S100 calcium-binding proteins, known also as calgranulins A and B or myeloid-related proteins MRP8 and MRP14, or cystic fibrosis antigen S100A8/A9: Calprotectin MMP-9: Matrix metalloproteinase 9 or gelatinase B, 92 kDa HNP 1-3: Human neutrophil peptides 1-3 or defensins CAP37: Cationic antimicrobial protein 37 LPS: Lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium fMLP: N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine PMA: Phorbol 12-miristate 13-acetate CDT: Clostridium difficile binary toxin.
HDM-DP, as an allergen from our environment, could induce the secretion of myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8, S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9).
van der Maarel, "MRP14 (S100A9) protein interacts with Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide and induces its fibrillization," PLoS ONE, vol.