A great deal of research into this framework has focused on augmenting the level of interaction between the user and the system in order to evoke and maintain clearer EEG patterns (e.g., MRCPs and SSVEP), thus increasing the pattern recognition efficiency.
A notable example of this is the work presented in , who developed a VE using Oculus Rift system that was controlled through a BCI based on MRCPs. The key aim of this study was the pattern recognition of four different navigational directions (forward, backward, go right, and go left) decoded in MRCPs of the user.
Y Parvez, MBBS, MD, MRCPCH, MRCPS
, DCH (UK); S Thomas, MBBS, MD Department of Pediatrics, Dubai Hospital, United Arab Emirates
Methods: In the current study, MRCPs were recorded in 20 patients diagnosed with AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria and, 20 patients diagnosed with MCI according to the Petersen criteria, by using a neuropsychological battery, including the mini-mental state examination, verbal memory processes test, clock-drawing test, geriatric depression scale, Stroop test, functional activities questionnaire, Benton facial recognition test, and the global deterioration scale.
In the current study, we aimed to demonstrate that the movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) test is an electrophysiological test that can be used in the above-mentioned conditions.
As with MRCPs
and MR myelograms, MR sialograms should enjoy clinical support as a good alternative to conventional sialography when investigating inflammatory conditions of the parotid glands.
Greater sensory demands from combined visual and proprioceptive modalities evoked increased movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) during performance of a knee extension task, compared with single modalities and unconstrained knee movements, which evoked the least activity (Figure 3).
Abbreviations: CNS = central nervous system, EMG = electromyography, FES = functional electrical stimulation, fMRI = functional magnetic resonance imaging, M1 = primary motor cortex, MEP = motor-evoked potential, MRCP = movementrelated cortical potentials, NIRS = near-infrared spectroscopy, PAS = paired associative stimulation, PBWS = partial bodyweight suspension, RR&D = Rehabilitation Research and Development, S1 = primary somatosensory cortex, SCI = spinal cord injury, SMA = supplementary motor area, SMC = sensory motor cortex, TA = tibialis anterior, T-AEX = treadmill aerobic exercise, TM = treadmill, TMS = transcranial magnetic stimulation, VA = Department of Veterans Affairs.
The shoulder surface coil also can be used for MRCPs. Its closer proximity to the body improves image quality.
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a recent MRI technique that allows projectional and cross-sectional imaging of the biliary tract without the use of contrast media.
The detection of movement intentions from EEG, specifically movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs
), has been thoroughly investigated and several techniques exist to detect executed and imaginary movements from healthy subjects and attempted movements from patients suffering from spinal cord injury or stroke [4-9].
These studies are based on movement related cortical potentials (MRCP
), spectral power (SP), and common spatial patterns (SCP) features of the EEG to detect movement information preceding actual movements.