EPCAM

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EPCAM

A gene on chromosome 2p21 that encodes a carcinoma-associated antigen expressed on most normal epithelial cells and gastrointestinal carcinomas, which functions as a homotypic calcium-independent cell adhesion molecule. EPCAM is thought to function as a relay molecule between intestinal epithelial cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes at the mucosa, providing an immune barrier to infection. It is of interest in oncology as a target for cancer immunotherapy. It upregulates expression of FABP5, MYC and cyclins A and E.

Molecular pathology
Defects in EPCAM cause congenital tufting enteropathy (diarrhoea type 5).
References in periodicals archive ?
CD99, chromogranin A, CD45, inhibin, calretinin, CA-125, ER, PR, CK7, CK20, Moc31, Tag72, myogenin, S100, and destine were negative.
The EpCAM-CAR construct sequentially contains a mouse anti-human EpCAM scFv fragment (MOC31), CD8 hinge and transmembrane domains, and the intracellular signaling domains of 4-1BB and CD3[zeta].
Histologic specimens obtained at surgery were fixed in 10% formalin, routinely processed and embedded in paraffin All specimens were evaluated immunohistochemically with antibodies calretinin, vimentin, CK5/6, MOC31, CD15 and CEA using staining procedures.
The diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, RCC marker and CD10 in the classification of renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma: An immunohistochemical analysis of 328 cases.
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor shows a complex immunophenotype with common coexpression of epithelial (cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, MOC31, Ber EP4), muscle (perinuclear "dot" desmin), and neural (neuron-specific enolase, CD 57) markers.
EMA (Figure 1, d [red, with cell membrane accentuation]) indicates a malignant condition, whereas BerEp4 (Figure 1, c and j [brown]), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; Figure 1, h), MOC31, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1; Figure 1, i), CD15, and sialyl-TN are usually negative in MM and positive in metastatic adenocarcinoma.
Utility of WT-1, p63, MOC31, mesothelin, and cytokeratin (K903 and CK5/6) immunostains in differentiating adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant mesothelioma in effusions.
(2) Based on sensitivity and specificity, calretinin (Figure 8, A and B), cytokeratin 5 or 5/6 (Figure 9, A and B), WT1 (Figure 10, A through C), and podoplanin (D2-40) (Figure 11, A and B) are the best positive mesothelioma markers, whereas claudin 4 (Figure 12, A and B), MOC31 (Figure 13, A through C), and BER-EP4 are the best overall carcinoma markers.
Hepatoid carcinomas may also express MOC31 and mCEA, which are infrequently expressed in HCCs.
(17) In contrast, CA9, (13,19) MOC31, (11) c-kit, (19) VEGFR-2, (19) PDGFR-[alpha], (19) and TFE (18) were not detected.
The most useful general carcinoma markers are MOC31, BG8, carcinoembryonic antigen, and BerEp4.
Lung Adenocarcinoma Versus Mesothelioma (Second IHC Panel) Marker Lung Adenocarcinoma Mesothelioma Napsin A + - MOC31 + - CEA + - CK5/6 - + Thrombomodulin -/+ + HBME1 -/+ + Abbreviations: CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; CK5/6, cytokeratin 5/ 6; HBME1, Hector Battifora mesothelial/1; IHC, immunohistochemical; +, greater than 75% of cases are positive; -, fewer than 5% of cases are positive; -/+, fewer than 50% of cases are positive.