Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.


Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


(eg-zam?i-na'shon) [L. examinatio, equipoise, balance, examination]
Inspection of the body to determine the presence or absence of disease. Examination has been proposed as an international replacement for test, testing, and analysis although each of these words is more common in professional literature.

examination under anesthesia

Abbreviation: EUA
Any operative or invasive procedure done while the patient is sedated, in order to improve patient tolerance, alleviate pain or anxiety, or improve the quality of the exam.

bimanual examination

See: pelvic examination

dental examination

The visual, digital, and radiographic inspection of the teeth and surrounding structures, including the head and neck. The depth of the gingival sulcus is also probed and measured around each tooth to assess the state of health of the periodontium. The examination is completed with a mirror, explorer, periodontal probe, and dental radiographs.

digital rectal examination

Abbreviation: DRE
Palpation of the anus, rectum, and prostate gland with a gloved finger, used in the diagnosis of intestinal bleeding, anorectal pain, and both benign and malignant diseases of the prostate.

Patient care

The patient should be positioned for comfort, e.g., in Sims position (lying on the left side with knees and hips comfortably flexed). A chaperone and/or a drape should be provided for patient safety, comfort, and dignity. After an explanation of the procedure to the patient, several mL of surgical lubricant are placed on the examiner's glove, usually on the index finger. The examiner visually inspects the anus and perineum, then places the gloved finger on the anal opening while asking the patient to bear down gently. After the finger enters the anus, it is used to sweep circumferentially around the interior of the distal intestine. It is then directed anteriorly (when examining a male patient) to evaluate the consistency, size, and nodularity of the prostate gland. Samples of stool obtained during the exam may be sent to the lab to test them for the presence of occult blood.

double-contrast examination

A radiographic examination in which a radiopaque and a radiolucent contrast medium are used simultaneously to visualize internal anatomy.

endoscopic examination

Direct visualization of an internal organ with a fiber-optic tube, often accompanied by biopsy of suspicious lesions.

Folstein Mini Mental Status Examination

See: Folstein Mini Mental Status Exam

laboratory examination

Examination by urinalysis, blood tests, microbiological cultures, and other tests of body fluids.

Mini-Mental State Examination

Abbreviation: MMSE
A common test to quantify a person's cognitive ability. It assesses orientation, registration, attention, calculation, and language. Scoring is from 0 to 30, with 30 indicating intact cognition.

multilingual aphasia examination

Abbreviation: MAE
A battery of tests to measure language abilities in patients with speech disturbances. It consists of 11 components, including the abilities to repeat a sentence, spell, read, understand spoken directions, identify objects depicted in drawings, and articulate clearly.
Enlarge picture
Enlarge picture
Enlarge picture
Enlarge picture

pelvic examination

Physical examination of the vagina and adjacent organs. A speculum is used first to visualize anatomical structures. During speculum examination, cultures and Pap test specimens may be obtained. After the speculum is removed, the pelvic organs and rectum are examined manually by the examiner.
See: illustration

periodic health examination

A health screening examination performed on a scheduled or routine basis. The appropriate features of this examination depend on the patient's age, gender, and sometimes health history, family history, or employment status. Adult women should have periodic examinations that include Pap smears and mammography; professional pilots and truckers are screened periodically for visual impairment and hypertension. All adults over age 45 should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Patients with a personal history of cancer may be screened periodically for evidence of disease recurrence. For many patients, the periodic examination may include blood tests (e.g., to check levels of cholesterol and other lipids), immunological tests (e.g., health care workers are periodically screened for tuberculosis), or invasive examinations (e.g., sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy to look for colon cancer). Synonym: annual exam; periodic medical examination See: mammography; Papanicolaou test; table under cancer

periodic medical examination

Periodic health examination.

physical examination

Abbreviation: PEx
Examination of the body by auscultation, palpation, percussion, inspection, and olfaction.

radiological examination

Examination by various means of visualizing body spaces and organs and their functions, e.g., by computed tomography, fluoroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, or related techniques.

rapid trauma exam

Rapid trauma assessment.

rectoabdominal examination

Physical examination of the abdomen and rectum, e.g., to determine the cause of abdominal pain, or to identify guarding, internal bleeding or organ enlargement, masses, or tenderness.

Mini-Mental State Examination

Abbreviation: MMSE
A common test to quantify a person's cognitive ability. It assesses orientation, registration, attention, calculation, and language. Scoring is from 0 to 30, with 30 indicating intact cognition.
See also: examination
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
The MMSE and GDS scores, and urea, creatinine, albumin, and UA concentrations were found as 29.21[+ or -]1.04, 2.76[+ or -]1.58, 30.26[+ or -]9.12, 0.78[+ or -]0.09, 4.54[+ or -]0.25, and 4.75[+ or -]0.69, respectively.
On comparison, MMSE score assessed in uncontrolled is lower than the controlled state T2D patients.
La validez de constructo al comparar el MoCA-E y el MMSE (utilizando la prueba de correlacion de Spearman) fue de [rho] = 0,830 (p<0,001).
Both self- and informant-reported memory complaints were associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline ( OR = 1.30, 95% CI : 1.01-1.68, P = 0.045), after adjustment for age, gender, depression complaint, education level, and baseline MMSE score [Table 3].
In the analysis of the scores between the MMSE and monthly income, it was possible to observe a significant difference (p <0.001; Kruskal-Wallis test) among the group with income of 1 to 3 minimum wages with the groups with income of 4 to 6 and equal or greater than 10 minimum wages (Dunn's test), and found p <0.001 when verifying the trend in monthly income increase and MMSE scores (Jonckheere-Terpstra test).
In our study group, 12 participants (11%) scored below or equal to 18 in MMSE, 29 participants (26.6%) scored between 19--24 and 68 participants (62.4%) scored 25 and above--
(1) MMSE: 5 of 32 patients (15.6%) in the non-CAMV group were abnormal; 5 of 34 patients (14.7%) in the T-type group were abnormal; 6 of 30 patients (20.0%) in the K-type group were abnormal.
Finally, a Spearman correlation test between MMSE results, CBFVs difference, and %CVMRs was performed.
However, the hypertensive group showed increased SBP, MAP, and DP, as well as reduced scores on the MMSE and salivary bioavailability of NO in comparison with normotensive volunteers.
Neuropsychological assessment scales: MMSE [7], GDS [9], and Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (PDCRS) [4] were applied to our patients in this study.