Like other types of chronic ulcers, which result from an exaggeration of the inflammatory phase, diabetic ulcers have a prolonged inflammatory phase along with significant increases in proinflammatory cytokines, proteases (MMPs), and neutrophil elastase .
Moreover, acid etching showed to activate MMPs in dentin, which occurs differently when an acid-etching is directly put in contact to dentin or when 'strong' self-etching adhesives get in contact with it (Nishitani et al., 2006; De Munck et al., 2009; Osorio et al.).
Just as Ticha and Hospesova (2010) endorse problem posing as a diagnostic source for information regarding PSTs' knowledge and development, studying MMPs created by PSTs can offer teacher educators insight into the challenges of creating rich, real-world problems.
Pro-MMP-2 is a zymogen (also called gelatinase A) and its activation involves forming a complex on the cell surface with MT1-MMP, and TIMP-2, in which a neighboring MT1-MMP cleaves proMMP-2 at the pro-domain.[sup] Imbalance among MMPs, MT-MMP and TIMPs result in alterations in MMP activity and contribute to pathological deposition in vascular collagen as well as remodeling of resistance arteries in hypertension.[sup] Aging and estrogen loss induce changes in MMPs as well as TIMP concentrations that mainly contributes to ECM remodeling.[sup], Estrogen also exerts antifibrotic effects by both inhibiting collagen synthesis and enhancing its degradation.
In our study, no differences (P<0.05) in the gene expression of MMPs, IL-6 and ACAN were observed between the TA and PRP-treated chondrocyte cell cultures when compared to and not compared to the control group (Figure 1 A-D).