MMP14

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MMP14

A gene on chromosome 14q11-q12 that encodes matrix metalloproteinase 14, which specifically activates progelatinase A. It may be involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganisation by cleaving PTK7. Unlike other matrix metalloproteinases, which are secreted as inactive proproteins and activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases, MMP14 is a transmembrane protein that is activated from its precursor by furin endopeptidase cleavage.

Molecular pathology
MMP14 may trigger invasion by tumour cells by activating progelatinase A on the surface of tumour cells.
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are special class of proteases that are categorized in five groups as per their substrate specificity: collagenases (MMP-1, -8 and -13), gelatinases (MMP-2 and -9), stromelysins (MMP-3, -10, and -11), matrilysins (MMP-7) and membrane-type (MMP-14 to -17, -24 and -25).
Twenty-four MMPs have been identified, including collagenases (MMP-1, 8, 13, and 18), gelatinases (MMP-2 and 9), stromelysins (MMP-3 and 10), matrilisins (MMP-7 and 26), and membrane-type MMPs (MMP-14, 15, 16, 17, 24, and 25), among other types.
TIMP-3 expression was the highest in stable carotid plaques.[sup][51] Vulnerable plaque formation risk was significantly decreased in carotid plaque with MMP-14 position + 7096 TC + CC genotype compared to that in carotid plaque with MMP-14 TT genotype.[sup][52]
Four of them are classified as type I membrane proteins, MMP-14, MMP-15, MMP-16 and MMP-24, while remaining two (MMP-17 and MMP-25) are attached to the membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecule.
Based on the differences in their structure organization and substrate specificity, MMPs can been divided into 6 groups (2): 1) collagenases (MMP-1, 8, 13, and 18), of which the main function is degrading collagen types I, II and III; 2) gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), mainly acting on denaturing and cleaving type IV collagen and gelatin; 3) stromelysins (MMP-3, 7,10,11, 26 and 27), displaying hydrolysis ability of a broad range of ECM proteins, such as collagen types III, IV, V, elastin, proteoglycans and glycoprotein; 4) elastases (MMP-12); 5) membrane-type specific MMPs (MMP-14, 15, 16, 17, 24, 25) with a furin cleavage site in the pro-peptide region that are mainly related to the activation of MMP-2; and 6) other MMPs (MMP-19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 28).
These collagenases include MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13, and MMP-14 (MMP14 is a membrane-bound MMP) [97].
Tissue sections (7 pm) from middermal elastolysis or healthy control skins were used for immunohistochemical analysis of MMP-3, MMP9, MMP-2, MMP-1, TIMP-2, and MT1-MMP (MMP-14).
MMP family members include collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13, and MMP-18), gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), stromelysins (MMP-3, MMP-10, and MMP-11), matrilysins (MMP-7 and MMP-26), and membrane-type MMPs (MMP-14 and MMP-15).
Metalloproteinases include cell membrane metalloproteinases which are related to cell membrane (MMP-14, MMP-15, MMP-16, and MMP-17), gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), stromelysins (MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-10, MMP-11, and MMP-12), and collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13).
Marin-Castano, "MMP-14 and TIMP-2 overexpression protects against hydroquinone-induced oxidant injury in RPE: implications for extracellular matrix turnover," Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol.
The kit detects total activity of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, MMP-13, and MMP-14 based on a 5-FAM/ QXL520 fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide, which is used as an MMP substrate.
PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (number 9901S), primary antibodies against Cox-2, PI3K, P-AKT, AKT, P-GSK3[beta], GSK3[beta], [beta]-catenin, MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-14, and secondary antibody were all purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA, USA).