These biomarkers were: MMP-3, MMP-10, MMP-12
, MMP-13, IL-6, IL-10, CCL20, A2M, ICAM-1 and VEGF-C.
Many studies have revealed aberrantly increased expression of MMPs in intestinal biopsy tissue from patients with active UC including MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12
, and MMP-13.,, MMP-9 is among the most abundantly expressed MMPs in the bowel mucosa of active UC patients, and it correlates with disease activity.
The plasma levels of MMP-1 (p = 0.002), MMP-8 (p = 0.001), MMP-10 (p = 0.001), MMP-12
(p = 0.002) and MMP-13 (p = 0.006) showed statistically significant increase in OSCC patients as compared to controls.
Furthermore, studies of functional genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding five MMPs (MMP-1, MMP3, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MMP-12
) in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes revealed a strong association of MMP-9 279Q allele and the presence of plaques in men and specifically carotid plaques .
Monocytes and AMs are potent producers of several proteases; MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MMP-12
, and cathepsins, such as K, L, B, and S, [180, 181, 184, 186, 187] and study have documented the overexpression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MMP-12
in the lungs of smokers compared to healthy individuals [154, 188-194].
Gene expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-[alpha]), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1P), IL-10, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -12 (MMP-12
), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1(LRP-1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) were quantified in heart tissue using the TaqMan detection system.
(metalloelastase) is expressed mostly in macrophages and is responsible for their migration.
The kit detects total activity of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12
, MMP-13, and MMP-14 based on a 5-FAM/ QXL520 fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide, which is used as an MMP substrate.
The sections were stained to identify macrophages ((a), (b), (c), and (d) panels, x400) or neutrophils ((e), (f), (g), and (h) panels, x400) or to stain for MMP-12
((i), (j), (k), and (l) panels, x400) or iNOS ((m), (n), (o), and (p) panels, x400).
In particular, neutrophil elastase or MMP-12
can promote elastolysis [14-16].
MMP-7 is another metalloproteinase that has a broad substrate specificity for ECM proteins including gelatin and type IV collagen, while MMP-12
is a key macrophage-derived enzyme that has a role in adipose tissue remodeling [5, 6].
They are classified according to their substrate specificity, sequence similarity, and domain organization into six groups: collagenases (MMP-1, MMP8, MMP-13, and MMP-18), gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP9), stromelysins (MMP-3, MMP-10), matrilysins (MMP7, MMP-26), membrane-type MMPs (MMP-14, MMP-15, MMP-16, MMP-24, MMP-17, and MMP-25), and other MMPs (MMP-12
, MMP-19, MMP-20, MMP-21, MMP-23, MMP-27, and MMP-28) .