MAP2K4

(redirected from MKK4)

MAP2K4

A gene on chromosome 17q11.2 that encodes a MAPK kinase belonging to a protein kinase signal transduction cascade. MAP2K4 is a dual-specificity kinase and an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. It is also an essential component of the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signalling pathway, which is involved in the mitochondrial death signalling pathway, including the release cytochrome c, leading to apoptosis. With MAP2K7/MKK7, it is the only known kinase to directly activate the SAP/JNKs MAPK8/JNK1, MAPK9/JNK2 and MAPK10/JNK3; whereas MAP2K7/MKK7 exclusively activates JNKs, MAP2K4/MKK4 also activates the p38 MAPKs MAPK11, MAPK12, MAPK13 and MAPK14. MAP2K4 is required for maintaining peripheral lymphoid homeostasis. It is widely expressed in tissues, especially in skeletal muscle.
References in periodicals archive ?
Identification of ASK1, MKK4, JNK, c-Jun, and caspase-3 as a signaling cascade involved in cadmium-induced neuronal cell apoptosis.
c-Jun N-terminal (i) TGF-[beta] can rapidly activate JNK and kinases (JNK)/p38 p38 through MAPK kinases (MKK4, MKK 3-6) in activation various cell lines [133,134].
Entre las proteinas carboniladas identificadas se encuentran el receptor del factor de crecimiento vascular endotelial tipo 2 (VEGFR-2), la metaloproteasa-1 (MMP-1), la proteina cinasa activada por mitogenos tipo 4 (MKK4) y la proteina del complemento C5.
Isoangustone A, a novel licorice compound, inhibits cell proliferation by targeting PI3K, MKK4, and MKK7 in human melanoma.
Jo, "Identification of ASK1, MKK4, JNK, c-Jun, and caspase-3 as a signaling cascade involved in cadmium-induced neuronal cell apoptosis," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.
Xie, "Myricetin attenuated [MPP.sup.+]-induced cytotoxicity by anti-oxidation and inhibition of MKK4 and JNK activation in MES23.5 cells," Neuropharmacology, vol.
Moreover, miR-92a overexpression inhibits [H.sub.2][O.sub.2]-induced VSMCs apoptosis and senescence by suppressing both mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MKK4) and JNK1 pathways [81].
However, gene expression levels of two other metastasis suppressors, KISS1 and MKK4, were increased by ethanol.
(4-10) The MKK4 and MKK7 MAPKKs have been shown to activate JNK, and the MKK3 and MKK6 MAPKKs serve as the major activators of the p38 MAPK.
While MKK4 preferentially phosphorylates JNK on Tyr, MKK7 preferentially phosphorylates JNK on Thr [34-36].
Zhiqing Huang et al showed, about Real-time quantitative PCR, that the level of MKK4 expression was efficiently reduced by MKK4-specific siRNA.
JNKs can be activated by the upstream MKK4 and MKK7 kinases [186, 187].