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The study focused on two related proteins, MFN2 and MFN1, found on the outer membranes of mitochondria, structures inside the body's cells that act as powerhouses by converting food into energy.
Hypoxia leads to upregulation of mitofusin 1 (MFN1), a mitochondrial fusion protein, both in vivo and in vitro.
MFN1, MFN2, and OPA1 expression levels were increased, while FIS1 mRNA was decreased by HO-1 induction (p <0.05) an effect that was reversed by SnMP (p<0.05) (Figures 4(a)-4(d)).
Another fusion reduction pathway is provided through ubiquitination, membrane extraction, and degradation of outer mitochondrial membrane fusion proteins Mfn1 and Mfn2, via proteasomes [80, 81].
Through direct or indirect interactions of Parkin/PINK1 with the fusion factors Mfn1, Mfn2, and OPA1 and the fission factor Drp1, these proteins regulate mitochondrial dynamics, which is linked to the maintenance of mitochondrial function [80-83].
Specific TaqMan Gene Expression Assays probes for mouse HO-1, PGC1[alpha], UCP1, COX-IV (cytochrome c oxidase subunit-IV), adiponectin, TNF[alpha], IL-6, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1, Fis1, OPA1, aP2, SIRT3, C/EBPa, and GAPDH were used as previously described .
Fission is regulated by at least two proteins: a large GTPase, dynamin-like protein 1 (Drp1), and a small molecule, Fis1, and fusion involves three large mitochondrial transmembrane proteins localized to the outer membrane: mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), and optic atrophy protein 1 [82, 85].
Mitochondrial morphological dynamics are also dependent upon fission and fusion ofinner and outer membranes, mediated by large GTPases [11-13], including the cytosolic DRP1 , the mitofusin (MFN) proteins 1 and 2 (MFN1 and MFN2) , and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) [16-19].
First, Parkin can trigger the ubiquitination of Mfn1 and Mfn2, preventing the fusion of the mitochondria and working as a mechanism of isolation when these organelles are damaged, for subsequent sequestration and degradation by selective autophagy .
Mfn1, Mfn2, and Opa-1 are essential for mitochondrial fusion.
Mitochondria frequently fuse and divide to form dynamic networks in eukaryotic cells, and the key molecules in this process are mitofusins 1 and 2 (MFN1 and MFN2), which are large transmembrane GTPases, necessary for fusion.
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- Meynert cells
- Meynert commissure
- Meynert, Theodor H.
- Meynert's decussation
- Meynet nodes
- Meynet, Paul Claude Hyacinthe
- MFPM RCP
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