MAP3K2

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MAP3K2

A gene on chromosome 2q14.3 that encodes a MAPK kinase kinase belonging to a protein kinase signal transduction cascade. MAP3K2 regulates the JNK and ERK5 pathways by phosphorylating and activating MAP2K5 and MAP2K7, and it plays a role in caveolae kiss-and-run dynamics. MAP3K2 also interacts with MAPK8, SH2D2A, STK38, and XIAP.

Each mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved cascade of three protein kinases: an activated MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) phosphorylates and activates a specific MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which in turn activates a specific MAPK.
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Moreover, Smuf1 mediates JunB, MEKK2, and other molecule proteasomal degradation, which causes the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation [32, 38, 39].
These processes are initiated by FGF2, which activates MEKK2, causing recruitment of USP15 [91].
Zhang et al., "Ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 controls osteoblast activity and bone homeostasis by targeting MEKK2 for degradation," Cell, vol.
XIAP regulates bi-phasic NF-kappaB induction involving physical interaction and ubiquitination of MEKK2. Cell Signal 2008;20:2107-12.
The MAPKKK in JNK pathway includes MEKK1, MEKK2, MEKK3, and MEKK4, MLK, and ASK1 and MAPKK contain MKK4, MKK3, MKK6, and MKK7 [62, 63].
Oxidative stress directly or indirectly affects ASK1, MEKK1, MEKK2, MEKK3, MEKK4, and MLK3 and subsequently activates p38 pathway (Figure 3).
Oxidative stress ([H.sub.2][O.sub.2]) could influence BMK1 pathway by activating MEKK2 and MEKK3 directly.
Zhang, "MicroRNA-520b inhibits growth of hepatoma cells by targeting MEKK2 and cyclin D1," PLoS ONE, vol.
MAPKK kinases that regulate activation of p38 MAPK include kinases (Mlk1, Mlk2, Mlk3, Dlk, and Lzk), Mekk kinases (Mekk1, Mekk2, Mekk3, and Mekk4), Tak1, Ask1, Ask2, and Tpl- (2.20-26) Activation of the MAPKK kinases or MAPKKs occurs downstream from small G proteins whose function is regulated by the guanine exchange factor proteins.