MDMA


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Related to MDMA: molly, serotonin

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

 [meth″ĭ-lēn″di-ok″se-meth″am-fet´ah-mēn]
a compound chemically related to amphetamine and having hallucinogenic properties; it is widely abused. Popularly called Ecstasy.

MDMA

A centrally active phenethylamine derivative related to amphetamine and methamphetamine, with central nervous system excitant and hallucinogenic properties.
Synonym(s): 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

MDMA was first synthesized in Germany early in the 20th century and patented for use as an appetite suppressant, but because of its unacceptably high incidence of severe side effects it was never marketed for that indication. During the 1960s and 1970s, it was used experimentally as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Its administration has never been legal in the U.S., except as a Schedule I investigational drug. At present no medical indications for its use are recognized. Since the late 1980s, it has been an increasingly popular drug of abuse among white middle-class adolescents and young adults in metropolitan and suburban communities. More than 2 million tablets are smuggled into the U.S. each week from Belgium, Israel, and the Netherlands. It is also produced in illicit laboratories in this country. Known as "ecstasy" and by a number of other street synonyms (X, E, XTC, M&M, ADAM, Clarity, Lover's Speed, Hug Drug, Bean, Roll), it is usually dispensed as compressed tablets bearing various logos, particularly butterflies, lightning bolts, and four-leaf clovers. Tablets vary in concentration and purity and may contain substances other than MDMA, including caffeine and dextromethorphan, as adulterants or substitutes. MDMA is a club drug, that is, an agent sold and ingested at all-night dance parties ("raves," "techno parties," "trances") where most or all participants use the drug and where decor, entertainment, and ambiance are intended to enhance its psychotropic effects. Pharmacologically MDMA acts as a monoaminergic agonist, promoting copious serotonin release in midbrain centers. Taken orally a dose of 100 mg induces euphoria, loquacity, and a sense of increased energy and heightened social intimacy lasting 4-6 hours. Some users experience perceptual distortion and hallucinations, delirium, anxiety, panic attacks, aggressiveness, paranoia, or seizures. Physiologic effects include elevation of pulse and blood pressure, hyperthermia, dehydration, and muscular twitching and spasms (particularly jaw clenching) sometimes resulting in rhabdomyolysis. Excessive water consumption can lead to water intoxication. After the acute effects wear off, the user may experience depression, flashbacks, or amnesia. Some of these effects can persist or recur for weeks after use is discontinued. MDMA is frequently used in combination with other drugs, especially marijuana. Serially repeated dosing ("piggy-backing") increases the risk of acute psychosis, life-threatening cardiovascular emergencies, and malignant hyperthermia. Use of MDMA accounts for 5000-6000 emergency department visits yearly. Human and animal studies have documented a neurotoxic effect of MDMA on serotonin pathways. A single dose induces significant long-term neurochemical changes and repetitive use has been shown to cause selective and permanent brain damage manifested by irreversible cognitive impairment and memory loss.

MDMA

(ĕm′dē-ĕm-ā′)
n.
A drug, C11H15NO2, that is chemically related to amphetamine and mescaline and was formerly used in psychotherapy but is now illegal. It is used illicitly for its ability to induce euphoria, relaxation, and heightened empathy.

MDMA

Pharmacologic effects
Hallucinogenic, CNS stimulant, ephedrine-like effects, alertness.
 
Toxicology
Hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, DIC, renal failure, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, hepatotoxicity, hypertension, tachyarrhythmias, hypoglycaemia.
 
Chemistry
The chemical structure resembles mescaline but the base is related to amphetamines.

Route of administration
Oral.

Medical indications
None.

MDMA

3,4 methylenedioxy-methamphetamine. See Ecstasy.
References in periodicals archive ?
Further trials will compare results with a randomized control group that will receive a placebo instead of MDMA.
The current trials with MDMA, a substance created in a laboratory in 1912, are part of the "renaissance" in the research of psychedelic substances and their application in psychiatry over the past decade, Tzarfaty said.
Four male and female octopuses were exposed to MDMA by putting them into a beaker containing a liquefied version of the drug, which is absorbed by the octopuses through their gills.
Last August, the agency streamlined that process by deeming MDMA a "breakthrough therapy," meaning it "may demonstrate substantial improvement" over current options.
Mr Johns had MDMA in his system but at a level well below the toxic range.
PMA takes longer to take effect than MDMA, which can lead users to take more of the drug - believing that they have a weak batch of ecstasy - putting them at greater risk of harm.
Sian Roberts, from Dyfed Drug and Alcohol Service, said: "We would like to discourage even the most frequent user of MDMA, or Ecstasy, from using this drug as we are seeing life-threatening symptoms with some batches circulating in the Dyfed area."
Their findings, published online last month in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, also revealed that pills purported to be a purer and safer version of the illegal stimulant drug MDMA known as Molly contained as many harmful additives as the version known as Ecstasy.
MDMA is not the same as "ecstasy" or "Molly." Substances sold on the street under these names may contain MDMA, but frequently also contain unknown or dangerous adulterants.
Introduction: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine-derived psychostimulant, usually known as "ecstasy." The long-term neuropsychological effects of MDMA are examined in several studies with conflicting results.
A CLINICAL STUDY, which saw psychotherapy used in conjunction with the drug methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) to treat psychological and emotional trauma, wrapped up in Vancouver last November, and the results appear to be hopeful.