qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the mRNA levels of cyclin family members ( ccna1 , ccnb1 , ccnd1 , and cdk1 ), minichromosome maintenance proteins ( cdc45 , mcm2 , mcm3 , mcm4
, mcm5 , mcm6 , and mcm7 ), and proliferation cell nuclear antigen ( PCNA ) were significantly upregulated in ATF3-overexpressing CFs [Figure 3]a.
Comparison between G2 versus G3, which evaluated the influence of T2D with good glycemic control, showed that the HLA-DQA1 (p =<0.0001) and HLA-DQB1 (p = <0.0001) genes were upregulated and the MCM4 and SEC13 genes were downregulated DEGs in G2 subjects (p = 00006 and p = 0008, resp., Figure 1(c)).
When comparing the well-controlled T2D (G2) patients versus normoglycemics (G3), besides the aforementioned HLA-DQB1 gene, we found that SEC13 and MCM4 genes presented downregulation in both microarray and RTqPCR.
Ki-67 expression is superior to mitotic count and novel proliferation markers PHH3, MCM4
and mitosin as a prognostic factor in thick cutaneous melanoma.
Samples were collected at 6 m (MCM1 and MCM7) and 9 m (MCM2 and MCM8) in Lake Fryxell and 13 m (MCM3 and MCM5) and 18 m (MCM4 and MCM6) in Lake WLB to capture the microbiology of distinct vertical physicochemical and biogeochemical layers within the trophogenic zone (region where adequate light exists to support phytoplankton photosynthesis) of the two lakes.
For example, in MCM4 and MCM6 samples (i.e., 18-m Lake WLB) where the salinity was higher than 80 PSU (~2X seawater) and oxygen was low (Table 1), Chao2 estimated and observed richness were both similar to or slightly higher than the less extreme samples (Fig.
Supporting the above findings, a recent in vivo licensing assay has proved that the concentration of chromatin bound MCM2 and MCM4
changes with progression of G1 phase and they fail to colocalize with other replication machinery .
One example is the increased expression of the stem cell gene MCM4
, which is involved in the control of DNA replication.
) should be given to all children at the 11-12 year old visit as
Minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2), which is in the same functional family as two other genes (MCM4
and MCM6) identified in the study of Chen et al.
We found that genes required for the replication of chromosomal DNA (PCNA, FEN1, CDC6, MCM2, MCM3, MCM4
, MCM5, ORC1, ORC6, RRM1, RRM2) and genes required for postreplicative phases of the cell division cycle (e.g., CCNB1, PLK1) are coordinately induced and reach maximal expression levels between 8 and 24 hr (Figure 6B), consistent with the timing of the histologic changes observed in Figure 6A.